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Tire tread wear particles in ambient air—a previously unknown source of human exposure to the biocide 2-mercaptobenzothiazole
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1598-7093
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
2014 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 19, 11580-11586 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban particulate matter (PM), asphalt, and tire samples were investigated for their content of benzothiazole and benzothiazole derivates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether wear particles, i.e., tire tread wear or road surface wear, could contribute to atmospheric concentrations of benzothiazole derivatives. Airborne particulate matter (PM10) sampled at a busy street in Stockholm, Sweden, contained on average 17 pg/m3 benzothiazole and 64 pg/m3 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and the total suspended particulate-associated benzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole concentrations were 199 and 591 pg/m3, respectively. This indicates that tire tread wear may be a major source of these benzothiazoles to urban air PM in Stockholm. Furthermore, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was determined in urban air particulates for the first time in this study, and its presence in inhalable PM10 implies that the human exposure to this biocide is underestimated. This calls for a revision of the risk assessments of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole exposure to humans which currently is limited to occupational exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 21, no 19, 11580-11586 p.
Keyword [en]
Benzothiazole, 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, Tire tread wear, Urban air PM10, Biocide, Humane exposure
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-104499DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3131-1ISI: 000342416400046OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-104499DiVA: diva2:723641
Available from: 2014-06-11 Created: 2014-06-11 Last updated: 2017-06-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Traffic related air pollution with emphasis on particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Tire wear and biodiesel exhaust emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic related air pollution with emphasis on particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Tire wear and biodiesel exhaust emissions
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Particulate matter (PM) is regarded as one of the more important components of air pollution causing adverse health effects. A large group of compounds associated with PM are polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) which comprises polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Several PACs are known for their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties as well as have the ability to induce oxidative stress.

With the growing importance of non-exhaust particles relative to vehicular tail-pipe emissions in urban air, it is necessary to investigate the possible contribution of PAHs from the different non-exhaust sources, as these inputs are far less characterized than tail-pipe emissions and their impact on human health is largely unknown.

In this thesis automobile tires, an important non-exhaust traffic related source to particles, have been investigated for its content of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers. In a separate study benzothiazoles, a class of compounds used as vulcanization accelerators in tire manufacture, were determined to evaluate their use as potential markers for tire wear particles in ambient air.

Analysis of the tires showed a substantial variation in the PAH content between different makes of tires, likewise did the benzothiazoles content vary. By determining benzothiazole in air particles collected at a busy street in Stockholm the tire rubber contribution to airborne particles was estimated to 0.7 and 5.5 % for PM10 and all airborne particles, respectively. Together with the determined content of dibenzopyrenes and the relatively low mass contribution of tire wear to airborne particles in the urban air, estimated in this thesis as well as suggested by the literature, tire wear appears to be a minor traffic related contributor of these PAH compounds in the urban air. Nevertheless, tire wear may be an important source to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in the urban air.

Biodiesel, a biofuel produced from plant and animal fats, has been suggested as a suitable replacement for conventional petroleum based diesel fuels. While the majority of studies have focused on health outcomes from petroleum diesel exhaust exposure, human health effects related to biodiesel exhaust exposure is much less investigated.

Biodiesel exhaust particles have been compared with conventional petroleum diesel by determining >40 PAHs in two separate studies on two different diesel engines, running on neat rapeseed methyl ester (RME), petroleum diesel and a fuel blend of 3:7 RME : petroleum diesel. One of the biodiesel studies also included determination of four oxygenated PAHs (Oxy-PAHs).

The exhaust from biodiesel combustion differed from petroleum diesel combustion with regards to particle size, number of emitted particles, relative amount of volatile material adsorbed on the particles and emission of particle-associated PAHs and Oxy-PAHs. A portion of these volatile compounds originated from unburned or partially combusted biodiesel fuel, which interfered with the analysis. A sample cleanup method was therefore developed for determination of PAH in lipid rich matrices. Biodiesel combustion produced lower emission of PAHs and Oxy-PAH with the exception of a few PAHs with higher molecular weights. In comparison with petroleum diesel, the biodiesel particles had a higher relative composition of PAHs with more than four rings. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2016
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128859 (URN)978-91-7649-374-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-25, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2017-02-24Bibliographically approved

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Avagyan, RozannaSadiktsis, IoannisBergvall, ChristofferWesterholm, Roger
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