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Local and Regional Variation in Local Frequency of Multiple Coffee Pests Across a Mosaic Landscape in Coffea arabica's Native Range
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
2014 (English)In: Biotropica, ISSN 0006-3606, E-ISSN 1744-7429, Vol. 46, no 3, 276-284 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Shaded coffee has been highlighted for its potential to conserve biodiversity, and thus perhaps also a diversity of natural enemies that could control pest organisms. In southwestern Ethiopia, coffee is grown in shade both in contiguous forests and in forest patches with native trees surrounded by open fields. We hypothesized that coffee grown in contiguous forests, which is the natural habitat for coffee (Coffea arabica) and its interacting organisms, would have less pest damage due to high protection by natural enemies. We surveyed pests on coffee plants in plots within contiguous forests (10 sites) and in forest patches (21 sites). In general, the variation in number of damaged or attacked leaves by individual insect or fungal pests was larger between plants than between plots, which suggests that very local conditions or processes are important. The spatial signals were generally weak. Coffee rust and coffee blotch miner tended to have lower infestation rates in accordance with our hypothesis, while fruit flies in ripe berries were more abundant in forest patches closer to contiguous forest. Based on interviews, olive baboons showed a clear dependency on contiguous forest habitat and were regarded as a problem only in contiguous forests and forest patches close to contiguous forests. In conclusion, we found no support for a generally stronger top-down control on coffee pests in sites within, or with connectivity to, contiguous moist afromontane forests in the native range of coffee.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 46, no 3, 276-284 p.
Keyword [en]
Hemileia vastatrix, isolation gradient, Ethiopia, coffee, moist afromontane forests, landscape ecology, patch size
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Plant Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-105220DOI: 10.1111/btp.12106ISI: 000335784700005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-105220DiVA: diva2:732140
Funder
Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscienceSwedish Research Council Formas
Note

AuthorCount:4;

Available from: 2014-07-03 Created: 2014-06-24 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The impact of forest on pest damage, pollinators and pollination services in an Ethiopian agricultural landscape
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of forest on pest damage, pollinators and pollination services in an Ethiopian agricultural landscape
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The distribution of wild biodiversity in agroecosystems affect crop performance and yield in various ways. In this thesis I have studied the impact of wild biodiversity, in terms of trees and forest structures, on crop pests, pollinators and the pollination services provided in a heterogeneous landscape in southwestern Ethiopia. 

Coffee, Coffea arabica, is a forest shrub native to Ethiopia and is grown in most wooded areas in the landscape where I conducted my studies. Wild coffee is still found in remote parts of the forests in the landscape. For my first paper, I surveyed pest damage on coffee in coffee forest sites, where some sites were situated in continuous forest and some in isolated forest patches. I found the variation in pest damage frequency to mainly be among coffee plants within a site, rather than among sites, which indicates the importance of local processes. However, some pests were clearly connected to the forest habitat, such as the olive baboon.

In my second study, I surveyed pollinators visiting coffee flowers across a gradient of shade-tree structures. I found the semi-wild honeybee to be the dominating flower visitor. The abundance of the honeybee was not related to shade-tree structures, but to amount of coffee flower resources in the site. On the other hand, other pollinators, which included other bee species and hoverflies, were positively affected by more shade trees in the site.

In my third study I investigated how the forest cover affected local bee communities in the agricultural landscape. Moreover, I investigated if this relationship differed between the dry and rainy season. The distribution of food resources for bees changes between the seasons, which may affect the bees. Most trees, fruit trees and coffee, which are patchy resources, flowers in the dry season, whereas most herbs and annual crops, which are more evenly spread resources, flowers during the rainy season. I found a clear turnover in bee species composition between the dry and rainy season, with more mobile species in the dry season. Increased forest cover in the surrounding landscape had a positive impact on bee abundance and species richness. However, the impact did not change between seasons.

In my fourth study I evaluated the pollination success and pollen limitation of a common oil crop in the landscape in relation to forest cover. I found severe pollen limitation across the landscape, which may be related to the observed low bee abundances. The pollen limitation was not related to surrounding forest cover.

In conclusion, I have found the forest and wooded habitats to impact several mobile animals and pathogens in our study landscape, which in turn affect people. However, there is large complexity in nature and general relationships between forest structures and all crop related organisms may be unlikely to find. Various species are dependent on different resources, at different spatial scales and are interacting with several other species. To develop management strategies for increased pollination services, for reduced pest damage or for conservation in the landscape, more species-specific knowledge is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 2016. 48 p.
Keyword
agroforestry, Apoidea, Coffea arabica, crop pests, Ethiopia, forest cover, landscape ecology, moist afromontane forests, pollination, species composition, tropical agriculture
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Plant Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126669 (URN)978-91-7649-354-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-01, Vivi Täckholmsalen, NPQ-huset, Svante Arrhenius väg 20 A, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SWE-2009-134Swedish Research Council Formas, 229-2009-991
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-03-09 Created: 2016-02-10 Last updated: 2017-02-24Bibliographically approved

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