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The rise and fall of the Type Ib supernova iPTF13bvn Not a massive Wolf-Rayet star
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
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2014 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 565, A114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. We investigate iPTF13bvn, a core-collapse (CC) supernova (SN) in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5806. This object was discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) very close to the estimated explosion date and was classified as a stripped-envelope CC SN, likely of Type Ib. Furthermore, a possible progenitor detection in pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images was reported, making this the only SN Ib with such an identification. Based on the luminosity and color of the progenitor candidate, as well as on early-time spectra and photometry of the SN, it was argued that the progenitor candidate is consistent with a single, massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. Aims. We aim to confirm the progenitor detection, to robustly classify the SN using additional spectroscopy, and to investigate if our follow-up photometric and spectroscopic data on iPTF13bvn are consistent with a single-star WR progenitor scenario. Methods. We present a large set of observational data, consisting of multi-band light curves (UBVRI, g' r' i' z') and optical spectra. We perform standard spectral line analysis to track the evolution of the SN ejecta. We also construct a bolometric light curve and perform hydrodynamical calculations to model this light curve to constrain the synthesized radioactive nickel mass and the total ejecta mass of the SN. Late-time photometry is analyzed to constrain the amount of oxygen. Furthermore, image registration of pre- and post-explosion HST images is performed. Results. Our HST astrometry confirms the location of the progenitor candidate of iPTF13bvn, and follow-up spectra securely classify this as a SN Ib. We use our hydrodynamical model to fit the observed bolometric light curve, estimating the total ejecta mass to be 1.9 M-circle dot and the radioactive nickel mass to be 0.05 M-circle dot. The model fit requires the nickel synthesized in the explosion to be highly mixed out in the ejecta. We also find that the late-time nebular r'-band luminosity is not consistent with predictions based on the expected oxygen nucleosynthesis in very massive stars. Conclusions. We find that our bolometric light curve of iPTF13bvn is not consistent with the previously proposed single massive WR-star progenitor scenario. The total ejecta mass and, in particular, the late-time oxygen emission are both significantly lower than what would be expected from a single WR progenitor with a main-sequence mass of at least 30 M-circle dot.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 565, A114
Keyword [en]
supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: iPTF13bvn
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Astronomy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-105926DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201423884ISI: 000336730900114OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-105926DiVA: diva2:733209
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 307260
Note

AuthorCount:12;

Available from: 2014-07-08 Created: 2014-07-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. PTF12os and iPTF13bvn: Two stripped-envelope supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PTF12os and iPTF13bvn: Two stripped-envelope supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is based on research made by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF], and it is particularly closely tied to the still ongoing research on the stripped-envelope (SE) supernova (SN), iPTF13bvn (Type Ib), that occurred in the nearby galaxy NGC 5806. This SN was initially thought to have been the explosion of a very massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, but I have shown that this is very likely not the case. I suggest instead that the most likely scenario is that iPTF13bvn originated from a binary system where the envelope was stripped off from the SN progenitor by tidal forces from a companion star, in a similar way as for the very well studied Type IIb SN 2011dh. I have also investigated another SE SN, PTF12os (Type IIb), that occurred in the same galaxy as iPTF13bvn, with the conclusion that PTF12os and iPTF13bvn are very similar amongst themselves, and that both of them are also remarkably similar to SN 2011dh, in terms of all of the available observations (light-curves, spectra). Hydrodynamical models have been used to constrain the explosion parameters of iPTF13bvn, PTF12os and SN 2011dh; finding 56Ni masses in the range 0.063 − 0.075 M⊙, ejecta masses in the range 1.85 − 1.91 M⊙. Using the 56Ni-masses derived from our hydrodynamical modeling in combination with nebular models and late-time spectroscopy we were able to constrain the Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) mass to ∼ 12 M⊙ for iPTF13bvn and ≲ 15 M⊙ for PTF12os. In current stellar evolution models, stars with these masses on the ZAMS cannot lose their hydrogen envelopes and become SE SNe without binary interactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2016. 64 p.
Keyword
sovernovae
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135752 (URN)
Presentation
2016-11-08, Albanova, 19:42 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-22 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
2. Stripped-envelope supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stripped-envelope supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is based on research made by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF]. The focus is on stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe) discovered by (i)PTF, and it is closely tied to the research on the SE SN iPTF13bvn, that occurred in the nearby galaxy NGC 5806. This SN was initially thought to have been the explosion of a very massive Wolf-Rayet star, but we have shown that this is very likely not the case. We suggest instead that iPTF13bvn originated from a binary system where the envelope was stripped off from the SN progenitor by tidal forces from a companion (Paper I). PTF12os exploded in the same galaxy as iPTF13bvn, and our analysis shows that PTF12os and  iPTF13bvn were very similar, and that both were also remarkably similar to the Type IIb SN 2011dh, in terms of their light-curves and spectra. In Paper II, hydrodynamical models were used to constrain the explosion parameters of iPTF13bvn, PTF12os and SN 2011dh; finding 56Ni masses in the range 0.063-0.075 solar masses (Ms), ejecta masses in the range 1.85-1.91 Ms, and kinetic energies in the range 0.54-0.94 x 1051 erg. Furthermore, using nebular models and late-time spectroscopy we were able to constrain the Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) mass to ~ 12 Ms, for iPTF13bvn and ≤ 15 Ms for PTF12os. In current stellar evolution models, stars with these masses on the ZAMS cannot lose their envelopes and become SE SNe without binary interactions. In Paper III we investigate a peculiar SE SN, iPTF15dtg; this SN lacks both hydrogen and helium and shows a double-peaked LC with a broad main LC peak. Using hydrodynamical modeling we show that iPTF15dtg had a very large ejecta mass (~ 10 Ms), resulting from an explosion of a very massive star (~ 35 Ms). The initial peak in the LC can be explained by the presence of extended material around the star, likely due to an episode of strong mass-loss experienced by the progenitor prior to the explosion. In Paper IV we perform a statistical study of the spectra of all 176 SE SNe (Type IIb, Ib and Ic) discovered by (i)PTF. The spectra of Type Ic SNe show O absorption features that are both stronger and broader (indicating faster expansion velocities) compared to Type IIb and Type Ib SNe. These findings along with very weak He absorption support the traditional picture with Type Ic SNe being heavily stripped of their He envelopes prior to the explosions, and argue against alternative explanations, such as differences in explosive mixing of 56Ni among the SE SN subtypes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, 2017. 110 p.
Keyword
supernovae, transients
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Astronomy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-145016 (URN)978-91-7649-929-0 (ISBN)978-91-7649-930-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-08, sal FB42, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-07-04 Last updated: 2017-08-17Bibliographically approved

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