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Aspect and epistemic notions in the present tense system of Khalkha Mongolian
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6564-4451
2015 (English)In: Acta Linguistica Petropolitana, ISSN 2306-5737, Vol. XI, no 3, 46-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

In this paper, I will dicuss positive present tense forms in spoken Khalkha Mongolian. Khalkha is analyzed to have five non-finite aspect markers, the Progressive, Continuative, Habitual, Perfect, and Prospective. They mainly combine with the three suffixes ‑n, ‑aa and ‑dag. On its own, ‑n expresses an instantiated potential or neutral future and ‑aa combines epistemic possibility and resultativity. In combination with aspect markers, though, they express the evidential value of direct vs. indirect perception. As the resultant state of a perfect can be perceived directly, the division runs between direct sensual perception of the event and an event inferred from direct sensual perception vs. events that are concluded from assumptions, hearsay, and previous perception. The suffix ‑dag expresses habitual and generic semantics. It is most commonly used on its own, but can also take other aspect markers into its scope, e.g. expressing a habitually ongoing event. Next to its main use, it is even used to refer to mono-occasional events that diverge from what the speaker perceives as the normal course of events. In addition, absolute-final and other uses of the participle ‑h and final uses of the converb ‑aad are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
St. Petersburg: Rossijskaja akademija nauk / Russian Academy of Sciences, 2015. Vol. XI, no 3, 46-127 p.
Keyword [en]
aspect, evidentiality, Khalkha Mongolian
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
General Linguistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106140OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-106140DiVA: diva2:734894
Available from: 2014-07-21 Created: 2014-07-21 Last updated: 2016-01-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aspect, evidentiality and tense in Mongolian: From Middle Mongol to Khalkha and Khorchin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspect, evidentiality and tense in Mongolian: From Middle Mongol to Khalkha and Khorchin
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis consists of an introduction and the following papers:

  • The aspect-evidentiality system of Middle Mongol. Ural-Altaic Studies, 13. (forthcoming)
  • The tense-aspect system of Khorchin Mongolian. In: Pirkko Suihkonen & Lindsay Whaley (eds.), Typology of Languages of Europe and Northern and Central Asia. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (forthcoming)
  • Aspect and epistemic notions in the present tense system of Khalkha Mongolian. Acta Linguistica Petropolitana. (forthcoming)
  • Factual vs. evidential? - The past tense forms of spoken Khalkha Mongolian. In: Ad Foolen, Helen de Hoop, & Gijs Mulder (eds.), Empirical Approaches to Evidentiality. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (under review)

Its purpose is to give an account of tense, aspect and evidentiality in three Mongolian varieties: Middle Mongol (MM) as spoken in the Mongol Empire, Khalkha Mongolian as spoken in the Mongolian state, and Khorchin Mongolian as spoken in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. MM started out with a tripartite tense distinction and a medium-sized aspectual system. Its past evidential system was tripartite with suffixes for firsthand, non-firsthand and evidentially neutral information. In Khorchin, which developed under the influence of Mandarin and Manchu, evidentiality was lost, and tense was simplified into a past / non-past distinction, alongside with a discontinuous proximal future / past marker. The aspect system underwent some changes, but retained its complexity. Khalkha, which developed under the influence of Turkic and Tibetan, underwent some shared innovations with Khorchin, but retained participles as a multifunctional unit within finite predicates, so that its aspectual system grew more complex. The past evidentiality distinctions of MM were basically retained, but the introduction of present tense evidentiality brought a number of changes: the evidentially neutral value shifted to signaling assimilated knowledge, and discontinuous future uses were introduced for all past markers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, 2014. 51 p.
Keyword
Middle Mongolian, Mongolian, Khalkha, Khorchin, tense, evidentiality, aspect, complex predicates
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
General Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106174 (URN)978-91-628-9124-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-17, hörsal 4, hus B, Universitetsvägen 10 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Accepted. Paper 2: Accepted. Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Submitted.

 

Available from: 2014-09-25 Created: 2014-07-24 Last updated: 2014-08-05Bibliographically approved

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