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Quantum Bidding in Bridge
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
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2014 (English)In: Physical Review X, ISSN 2160-3308, E-ISSN 2160-3308, Vol. 4, no 2, 021047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game-bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2 -> 1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 4, no 2, 021047
Keyword [en]
Quantum Physics, Quantum Information
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106595DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.021047ISI: 000338666800001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-106595DiVA: diva2:737612
Note

AuthorCount:6;

Available from: 2014-08-13 Created: 2014-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Experiments with Entangled Photons: Bell Inequalities, Non-local Games and Bound Entanglement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiments with Entangled Photons: Bell Inequalities, Non-local Games and Bound Entanglement
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Quantum mechanics is undoubtedly a weird field of science, which violates many deep conceptual tenets of classical physics, requiring reconsideration of the concepts on which classical physics is based. For instance, it permits persistent correlations between classically separated systems, that are termed as entanglement. To circumvent these problems and explain entanglement, hidden variables theories--based on undiscovered parameters--have been devised. However, John S. Bell and others invented inequalities that can distinguish between the predictions of local hidden variable (LHV) theories and quantum mechanics. The CHSH-inequality (formulated by J. Clauser, M. Horne, A. Shimony and R. A. Holt), is one of the most famous among these inequalities. In the present work, we found that this inequality actually contains an even simpler logical structure, which can itself be described by an inequality and will be violated by quantum mechanics. We found 3 simpler inequalities and were able to violate them experimentally.

Furthermore, the CHSH inequality can be used to devise games that can outperform classical strategies. We explore CHSH-games for biased and unbiased cases and present their experimental realizations. We also found a remarkable application of CHSH-games in real life, namely in the card game of duplicate Bridge.  In this thesis, we have described this application along with its experimental realization. Moreover, non-local games with quantum inputs can be used to certify entanglement in a measurement device independent manner. We implemented this method and detected entanglement in a set of two-photon Werner states. Our results are in good agreement with theory.

A peculiar form of entanglement that is not distillable through local operations and classical communication (LOCC) is known as bound entanglement (BE). In the present work, we produced and studied BE in four-partite Smolin states and present an experimental violation of a Bell inequality by such states. Moreover we produced a three-qubit BE state, which is also the first experimental realization of a tripartite BE state. We also present its activation, where we experimentally demonstrate super additivity of quantum information resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2016. 89 p.
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128277 (URN)978-91-7649-358-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-28, FP41, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 33, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Submitted. Paper 6: Submitted.

Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-03-22 Last updated: 2017-02-24Bibliographically approved

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