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International organizations as peacemakers: The evolution and effectiveness of intergovernmental instruments to end civil war
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Across four self-contained essays, this dissertation seeks to identify which features make international organizations (IOs) effective peacemakers in modern civil wars. The first essay introduces an original dataset on the institutional design of 21 peace-brokering IOs between 1945 and 2010. The second essay contains a statistical study of 122 IO civil war mediation episodes, examining how variation in institutional design affects outcomes. The third essay presents an in-depth case study, comparing interventions by the Arab League and the United Nations in Syria in 2011 and 2012. The fourth essay is a statistical examination of how IO member state biases influence mediation effectiveness. Overall, this dissertation demonstrates that the performance of peace-brokering IOs cannot be accurately evaluated without taking institutional variation into account. IOs display considerable heterogeneity in de­sign and capabili­ties and this variation has implications for the nature and effectiveness of IO interventions. Quantitative evidence reveals that IOs with strongly centralized instruments for supporting mediation and, in particular, peacekeeping operations are more likely to end civil wars. Qualitative evidence shows that IOs with such capabilities can engage in interventions of greater scope and credibility, enhancing their ability to shape the calculations of civil war disputants. Combined, the studies suggest that although institutional capabilities are necessary for sustained intervention effectiveness, they are conditioned on other organizational attributes. IOs with high preference homogeneity can signal intervention durability, giving them an edge over IOs with divided memberships. IOs that contain member states that have pro­vided direct support to civil war disputants outperform IOs that lack such member states.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Political Science, Stockholm University , 2014. , 52 p.
Series
Stockholm studies in politics, ISSN 0346-6620 ; 157
Keyword [en]
intergovernmental organizations, international organizations, conflict management, conflict resolution, mediation, civil war, armed conflict, institutional design, mediator bias, bargaining theory
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106650ISBN: 978-91-7447-950-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-106650DiVA: diva2:737680
Public defence
2014-09-09, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

This dissertation consists of four self-contained essays dealing with different aspects of conflict management by international organizations.

Essay 4 previously appeared in 2014 as “Leanings and dealings: Exploring bias and trade leverage in civil war mediation by international organizations” (International Negotiation, 19(2), 315–342).

Available from: 2014-08-18 Created: 2014-08-13 Last updated: 2016-05-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Conflict management capabilities of peace-brokering international organizations, 1945-2010: A new dataset
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conflict management capabilities of peace-brokering international organizations, 1945-2010: A new dataset
2016 (English)In: Conflict Management and Peace Science, ISSN 0738-8942, E-ISSN 1549-9219, Vol. 33, no 2, 198-223 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The expectation that international organizations (IOs) can play a role in the resolution of violent conflict has spawned a process of institutional growth in the post-Second World War period. IOs at all levels have expanded existing instruments of conflict management and have gradually established new ones, such as mediation support units, early warning systems and standby military forces. Empirical research on this process has suffered from a lack of systematic, cross-temporal data. Seeking to rectify this weakness, this article introduces an original dataset on the institutional design of 21 peace-brokering IOs, organizations endowed with standing capabilities for conflict management interventions. The dataset contains yearly observations on 14 institutional variables during the 1945-2010 period, centered around three instruments of IO conflict management: mediation, economic sanctions and peacekeeping. It also includes observations on IO membership characteristics, power polarity and a set of security-related institutional features. This dataset provides scholars with a new source of variables for the study of institutional evolution, institutional heterogeneity and the impact of institutional characteristics on IO performance. A preliminary descriptive analysis shows that IOs display significant variation in terms of mandates, capabilities and rates of change. Using the data, I also perform a re-appraisal of an earlier study on IO dispute resolution, demonstrating the analytic benefits of having disaggregated measures of institutional design.

Keyword
Capabilities, conflict management, dataset, institutional design, international organizations
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130184 (URN)10.1177/0738894215572757 (DOI)000373976000004 ()
Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. Which type of international organizations can settle civil wars?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Which type of international organizations can settle civil wars?
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106643 (URN)
Available from: 2014-08-13 Created: 2014-08-13 Last updated: 2014-09-30Bibliographically approved
3. Interventions and civil war bargaining: How institutional characteristics shaped mediation and monitoring by the Arab League and UN in Syria, 2011-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interventions and civil war bargaining: How institutional characteristics shaped mediation and monitoring by the Arab League and UN in Syria, 2011-12
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106645 (URN)
Available from: 2014-08-13 Created: 2014-08-13 Last updated: 2014-09-30
4. Leanings and Dealings: Exploring bias and trade leverage in civil war mediation by international organizations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leanings and Dealings: Exploring bias and trade leverage in civil war mediation by international organizations
2014 (English)In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 19, no 2, 315-342 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two characteristics of mediators – bias and leverage – are discussed intensively in the research on international mediation. However, whereas bias and leverage have been examined in mediation by states, relatively little is known about their role in mediation by international organizations (ios). This study provides new ways of conceptualizing io bias and leverage and utilizes unique data to measure the impact of io bias and leverage on mediation outcomes. Exploring all cases of civil war mediation by ios in the period 1975–2004, we find that ios where member states provide support to both sides in a conflict outperform ios whose member states remain disinterested. ios with significant trade leverage also increase the likelihood of mediation success. The study demonstrates that ios rarely have a neutral relationship to civil war combatants, that mediation by ios is laden with member state interests, and that such interests shape outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brill Academic Publishers, 2014
Keyword
mediation, mediator bias, civil war
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106642 (URN)10.1163/15718069-12341280 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-08-13 Created: 2014-08-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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