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Global emission inventories for C-4-C-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: The remaining pieces of the puzzle
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
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2014 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 69, 166-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We identify eleven emission sources of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic adds (PFCAs) that have not been discussed in the past. These sources can be divided into three groups: [i] PFCAs released as ingredients or impurities, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and their derivatives; [ii] PFCAs formed as degradation products, e.g., atmospheric degradation of some hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrofluoroethers (HFEs); and [iii] sources from which PFCAs are released as both impurities and degradation products, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PBSF)- and perfluorohexane sulfonyl fluoride (PHxSF)-based products. Available information confirms that these sources were active in the past or are still active today, but due to a lack of information, it is not yet possible to quantify emissions from these sources. However, our review of the available information on these sources shows that some of the sources may have been significant in the past (e.g., the historical use of PFBA-, PFHxA-, PBSF- and PHxSF-based products), whereas others can be significant in the long-term (e.g., (bio)degradation of various side-chain fluorinated polymers where PFCA precursors are chemically bound to the backbone). In addition, we summarize critical knowledge and data gaps regarding these sources as a basis for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 69, 166-176 p.
Keyword [en]
Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), Global emission inventory, Side-chain fluorinated polymers, Hydrofluorocarbons, Hydrofluoroethers, Substances based on perfluoroalkane sulfonyl fluorides (PASFs)
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106567DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.006ISI: 000338596600017OAI: diva2:738165


Available from: 2014-08-15 Created: 2014-08-12 Last updated: 2014-08-15Bibliographically approved

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Cousins, Ian T.
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