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Pressurized liquid extraction as an alternative to the Soxhlet extraction procedure stated in the US EPA method TO-13A for the recovery of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on polyurethane foam plugs
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
2014 (English)In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 6, no 20, 8420-8425 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to develop a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method as an alternative to the relatively time consuming Soxhlet extraction procedure described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) method TO-13A for the extraction of PAHs adsorbed onto polyurethane foam plugs (PUFs). For this purpose PUF air samples were collected and split into two parts: one part extracted using PLE and the other one using Soxhlet extraction. Comparable PAH concentrations were obtained upon analysis of the extracts showing that the PLE method developed in this work is a more convenient choice than the commonly used Soxhlet extraction technique proposed by US EPA for the determination of PAHs in air samples. In fact, the developed PLE method required shorter assay times (minutes versus hours), less solvent consumption and simpler operational methods. The exhaustiveness of the developed PLE method was evaluated using repeat static extraction cycles, demonstrating an extraction efficiency for the PAHs of greater than 99%. The PLE method was then applied to diesel exhaust and wood smoke PUF samples showing an extraction efficiency for the PAHs of greater than 93% and 96%, respectively. Furthermore, a PLE method for PUF cleaning was developed as well and employed as an alternative to Soxhlet extraction. The PLE methods developed for cleaning and extracting PUFs presented in this work are suitable to be used in mutagenicity studies using the Ames Salmonella assay as no mutagenicity was found in the PLE generated blanks

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 6, no 20, 8420-8425 p.
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107173DOI: 10.1039/c4ay01430hISI: 000342989400045OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-107173DiVA: diva2:743719
Available from: 2014-09-04 Created: 2014-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Various Environmental Matrices: Emphasis on extraction method development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Various Environmental Matrices: Emphasis on extraction method development
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Very recently, air pollution was declared the world’s single largest environmental health risk by the World Health Organization. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to a better assessment of air pollution through the development of novel and exhaustive extraction methods for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are mutagenic and carcinogenic air pollutants.

The methods were developed and validated for the extraction of PAHs in both the semi-volatile fraction and particulate matter with application to samples derived from major sources of PAHs (diesel exhaust, coal fly ash and wood smoke samples). Pressurized liquid extraction was used because it allows a high sample throughput with reduced solvent requirements and analysis time compared to other traditionally used techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction.

The results presented herein show that the extraction conditions used when analyzing PAHs need to be evaluated to avoid underestimating their concentrations. This is especially true for the human carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, which is often used as an indicator in the cancer risk assessments of PAHs, and the dibenzopyrene isomers due to their potentially high carcinogenicities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2014. 56 p.
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107175 (URN)978-91-7447-964-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-09, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-04 Last updated: 2014-09-18Bibliographically approved

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Masala, SilviaRannug, UlfWesterholm, Roger
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