Assessment of PCDD/F Source Contributions in Baltic Sea Sediment Core Records
2014 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 16, 9531-9539 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Spatial and temporal trends of sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Baltic Sea were evaluated by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA). Sediment cores were sampled at eight coastal, one coastal reference, and six offshore sites covering the northern to the southern Baltic Sea. The cores, which covered the period 1919-2010, were sliced into 2-3 cm disks among which 8-11 disks per core (in total 141 disks) were analyzed for all tetra- through octa-CDD/Fs. Identification and apportionment of PCDD/F sources was carried out using PMF. Five stable model PCDD/F congener patterns were identified, which could be associated with six historically important source types: (i) atmospheric background deposition (ABD), (ii) use and production of pentachlorophenol (PCP), (iii) use and production of tetra-chlorophenol (TeCP), (iv) high temperature processes (Thermal), (v) hexa-CDD-related sources (HxCDD), and (vi) chlorine-related sources (Chi), all of which were still represented in the surface layers. Overall, the last four decades of the period 1920-2010 have had a substantial influence on the Baltic Sea PCDD/F pollution, with 88 +/- 7% of the total amount accumulated during this time. The 1990s was the peak decade for all source types except TeCP, which peaked in the 1980s in the northern Baltic Sea and has still not peaked in the southern part. The combined impact of atmospheric-related emissions (ABD and Thermal) was dominant in the open sea system throughout the study period (1919-2010) and showed a decreasing south to north trend (always >80% in the south and >50% in the north). Accordingly, to further reduce levels of PCDD/Fs in the open Baltic Sea ecosystem, future actions should focus on reducing atmospheric emissions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 48, no 16, 9531-9539 p.
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107598DOI: 10.1021/es502352pISI: 000340701800071OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-107598DiVA: diva2:748846