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Smoking cessation and gender differences – results from a Swedish sample
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
2015 (English)In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 3, 259-276 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: Previous research has concluded that the prevalence of smoking, as well as reasons to quit and strategies to become smoke-free, varies markedly by gender.  However, we lack a more comprehensive understanding of the process that leads to a quit attempt and a positive long-term outcome, and also the gender specific mechanism behind a successful cessation. The aim is therefore to investigate motives for, mechanism in, and factors behind smoking cessation, with special regard to gender differences.

Data/Method: During Oct 2009- May 2010 respondents were recruited via the so-called Monitor-project. By the turn of each month 1,500 individuals, aged 16-80, from a representative sample in the Swedish population (n=12 000) were interviewed via telephone. Via a screening process those who stated being previous daily smokers, but smoke-free for at last 12 months, were asked to answer a postal survey (n=1 683) concerning their process to a smoke-free life. The analyses consist of both descriptive statistics and factor analyses.

Results: The results indicate that women’s smoking filled several functions in life, that they often quit for the sake of others, and that the cessation process was quite complex. Men tended to experience smoking as quite unproblematic and often quit out of more self-oriented reasons. Moreover, even though a majority quit smoking without any professional help or other means the use among those who did was clearly gendered.

Conclusions: Gender differences were found in reasons to smoke, reasons to quit, and strategies to quit smoking why cessation strategies should be gender sensitive, taking special needs into account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 32, no 3, 259-276 p.
Keyword [en]
Smoking cessation, Process, Gender differences, Sweden, Factor analyses
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-108738DOI: 10.1515/nsad-2015-0025OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-108738DiVA: diva2:760325
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 1406702
Available from: 2014-11-03 Created: 2014-11-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Smoking cessation in Sweden - gender, pathways, and identity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smoking cessation in Sweden - gender, pathways, and identity
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research on smoking has to a great deal been conducted within a public health or a medical context, or focused on policy making. Fewer studies have taken their point of departure in a social sciences context, and still fewer have analysed why individuals start and cease to smoke, and how and why smoking patterns on an aggregate level change over time and vary between different population groups.

The aim of this dissertation is to analyse changes in the Swedish tobacco consumption with special emphasis at elucidating the decrease in smoking during the past half-century from different angels. Thus, the first paper explore if and how changes in smoking patterns can be understood and explained with reference to Sweden’s development as a welfare state, and in relation to socio-demographic and socio-economic circumstances. The second paper focuses on the long-term pathways to smoking cessation, by discerning several distinct trajectories from smoker to non-smoker. The third paper analyses gender differences with regard to reasons to smoke, experiences of smoking, and central elements in the cessation process. Finally, in the fourth paper, the issue of to what extent smoking cessation can be described as a process of identity change is explored.  

Smoking initiation and cessation vary by socio-demographic and socio-economic factors, and the rapid decrease in smoking has resulted in a rather vulnerable group of smokers in these aspects. The results also indicate that the cessation process is complex, with personal and structural factors interacting in the long-term process, leading to multiple pathways to a smoke-free life. Moreover, they point to gender differences in reasons to smoke and to quit, and in strategies to quit smoking. In addition, identity change seems to be important in remaining smoke-free. The stated inequality in gender and class points in the direction that structural changes and social policies might be of need to decrease smoking even further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, 2014. 85 p.
Series
Dissertations at the Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), ISSN 1650-819X ; 13
Keyword
Smoking, smoking cessation, Sweden, gender, pathways, identity, socio-demographic background, socio-economic factors, trajectories, factor analyses, interviews
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-108481 (URN)978-91-7649-037-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-10, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Women, Health and Substance use
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 140 67 02
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Submitted. Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-11-18 Created: 2014-10-28 Last updated: 2014-11-21Bibliographically approved

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