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Changes in smoking in Sweden since the mid 20th century – the influence of age, gender, education, and socio-economic status
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Introduction/Aim: Identification of factors that predicts smoking initiation and cessation is of importance both for effective prevention strategies and cessation aid. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to characterise individuals that has started to smoke and individuals that quit smoking, with respect to age, sex, education, socio-economic circumstances, and family situation and analyse to what extent these variables predicts smoking initiation and smoking cessation. The results are discussed in relation to the policy and societal development in Sweden.

Design/Method: The data consists of self-reported data on smoking experiences, obtained from the so-called Monitor-project during Oct 2009- May 2010. By the turn of each month 1 500 individuals, aged 16-84, from a representative sample in the Swedish population (n=12 008) were interviewed via telephone. The analyses consist of descriptive statistics as well as logistic regression models.

Results: Smoking initiation and cessation is found to vary between socio-demographic and socio-economic factors, and the rapid decrease in smoking during the past decades has resulted in a rather vulnerable group of smokers in these aspects. The changes in smoking patterns can be understood and explained in relation to social and tobacco policy developments in Sweden.

Discussion/Conclusions: The study concludes that the present situation, with a low smoking prevalence over all, however concentrated to rather vulnerable groups, such as young, low educated and single women, gives raise for the need of measures in the social-political framework. 

Keyword [en]
Smoking epidemic, Smoking cessation, Socio-economic differences, Gender, Sweden
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-108740OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-108740DiVA: diva2:760328
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 1406702
Available from: 2014-11-03 Created: 2014-11-03 Last updated: 2016-08-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Smoking cessation in Sweden - gender, pathways, and identity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smoking cessation in Sweden - gender, pathways, and identity
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research on smoking has to a great deal been conducted within a public health or a medical context, or focused on policy making. Fewer studies have taken their point of departure in a social sciences context, and still fewer have analysed why individuals start and cease to smoke, and how and why smoking patterns on an aggregate level change over time and vary between different population groups.

The aim of this dissertation is to analyse changes in the Swedish tobacco consumption with special emphasis at elucidating the decrease in smoking during the past half-century from different angels. Thus, the first paper explore if and how changes in smoking patterns can be understood and explained with reference to Sweden’s development as a welfare state, and in relation to socio-demographic and socio-economic circumstances. The second paper focuses on the long-term pathways to smoking cessation, by discerning several distinct trajectories from smoker to non-smoker. The third paper analyses gender differences with regard to reasons to smoke, experiences of smoking, and central elements in the cessation process. Finally, in the fourth paper, the issue of to what extent smoking cessation can be described as a process of identity change is explored.  

Smoking initiation and cessation vary by socio-demographic and socio-economic factors, and the rapid decrease in smoking has resulted in a rather vulnerable group of smokers in these aspects. The results also indicate that the cessation process is complex, with personal and structural factors interacting in the long-term process, leading to multiple pathways to a smoke-free life. Moreover, they point to gender differences in reasons to smoke and to quit, and in strategies to quit smoking. In addition, identity change seems to be important in remaining smoke-free. The stated inequality in gender and class points in the direction that structural changes and social policies might be of need to decrease smoking even further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, 2014. 85 p.
Series
Dissertations at the Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), ISSN 1650-819X ; 13
Keyword
Smoking, smoking cessation, Sweden, gender, pathways, identity, socio-demographic background, socio-economic factors, trajectories, factor analyses, interviews
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-108481 (URN)978-91-7649-037-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-10, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Women, Health and Substance use
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 140 67 02
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Submitted. Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-11-18 Created: 2014-10-28 Last updated: 2014-11-21Bibliographically approved

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