Ground-penetrating Radar and Geological Study of the Kudrukula Stone Age Archaeological Site, Northeast Estonia
2014 (English)In: Archaeological Prospection, ISSN 1075-2196, E-ISSN 1099-0763, Vol. 21, no 3, 225-234 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
A combined ground-penetrating radar (GPR), drilling and diatom survey was carried out in order to characterize formation of the Kudrukula Stone Age Comb Ware archaeological site, northeast Estonia. A few decades ago a cultural layer was discovered, located within fine-grained sands of the right bank of the Kudrukula Stream an altitude of 1.25-1.60 m above sea level. The layer is 15-35 cm thick and composed of poorly sorted sand of intensive reddish colour with abundant arte- and ecofacts, human bones, burned hearthstones and charcoal pieces. Artefacts, in particular pottery, are well preserved and frequently present as large pieces. The Kudrukula site holds an exceptional position among other Stone Age coastal settlements in that it is not located directly on top of beach ridges, but is buried under similar to 3 m of sand. When the Kudrukula settlement existed the level of the Litorina Sea was similar to 6 m above present sea level, which is similar to 4.5 m above the present location of the cultural layer. The current research is used to describe the geological structure of the area to provide a perspective on the history of the cultural material, and reveals that the cultural material is not restricted to one layer/lens only because it is irregularly and widely distributed within the sands of Kudrukula. The GPR and diatom analyses show that the Kudrukula cultural material is redeposited, because it occurs within an ancient point-bar succession of a (Narva) river meander. Originally, the dwelling site had been located on top of the Narva-Joesuu sandy coastal ridges, which subsequently suffered erosion and the sand resedimented at the Kudrukula location. Good preservation of the cultural items shows that, after redeposition, they were buried fast, probably within a year. The present Kudrukula stream has cut into the floodplain of the ancient (Narva) river to expose the redeposited layer/lens.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 21, no 3, 225-234 p.
Ground-penetrating radar, Stone Age, Estonia, Narva-Luga Klint Bay, diatom analyses, archaeology
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Archaeology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-109055DOI: 10.1002/arp.1484ISI: 000342740000006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-109055DiVA: diva2:763232