Marginally hydrophobic transmembrane α-helices shaping membrane protein folding
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Most membrane proteins are inserted into the membrane co-translationally utilizing the translocon, which allows a sufficiently long and hydrophobic stretch of amino acids to partition into the membrane. However, X-ray structures of membrane proteins have revealed that some transmembrane helices (TMHs) are surprisingly hydrophilic. These marginally hydrophobic transmembrane helices (mTMH) are not recognized as TMHs by the translocon in the absence of local sequence context.
We have studied three native mTMHs, which were previously shown to depend on a subsequent TMH for membrane insertion. Their recognition was not due to specific interactions. Instead, the presence of basic amino acids in their cytoplasmic loop allowed membrane insertion of one of them. In the other two, basic residues are not sufficient unless followed by another, hydrophobic TMH. Post-insertional repositioning are another way to bring hydrophilic residues into the membrane. We show how four long TMHs with hydrophilic residues seen in X-ray structures, are initially inserted as much shorter membrane-embedded segments. Tilting is thus induced after membrane-insertion, probably through tertiary packing interactions within the protein.
Aquaporin 1 illustrates how a mTMH can shape membrane protein folding and how repositioning can be important in post-insertional folding. It initially adopts a four-helical intermediate, where mTMH2 and TMH4 are not inserted into the membrane. Consequently, TMH3 is inserted in an inverted orientation. The final conformation with six TMHs is formed by TMH2 and 4 entering the membrane and TMH3 rotating 180°. Based on experimental and computational results, we propose a mechanism for the initial step in the folding of AQP1: A shift of TMH3 out from membrane core allows the preceding regions to enter the membrane, which provides flexibility for TMH3 to re-insert in its correct orientation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of biochemistry and biophysics, Stockholm University , 2014. , 66 p.
membrane protein folding, hydrophobicity, translocon, transmembrane helix, marginally hydrophobic transmembrane helices, orientational preference, positive inside rule, aquaporin 1
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject Biochemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-109335ISBN: 978-91-7649-050-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-109335DiVA: diva2:764217
2014-12-19, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrheniusväg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Dowhan, William, Professor
Elofsson, Arne, Professor
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript.2014-11-272014-11-182014-11-28Bibliographically approved
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