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Sources of Dust Extinction in Type Ia Supernovae: Measurements and constraints from X-rays to the Infrared
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. (Cosmology, Particle astrophysics and String theory)
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as distance indicators is essential for studying the expansion history of the Universe and for exploring the nature of dark energy. However, a lack of understanding of the progenitor systems and the empirically derived colour-brightness corrections represent severe limitations for SNe Ia as cosmological probes. In this thesis, we study how dust along the line of sight towards SNe Ia affects the observed light over a wide range of wavelengths; from X-rays to infrared.

Unless properly corrected for, the existence of intergalactic dust will introduce a redshift dependent magnitude offset to standard candle sources and bias the cosmological parameter estimates as derived from observations of SNe Ia. We model the optical extinction and X-ray scattering properties of intergalactic dust grains to constrain the intergalactic opacity using a combined analysis of observed quasar colours and measurements of the soft X-ray background. We place upper limits on the extinction AB(z = 1) < 0.10 - 0.25 mag, and the dust density parameter Ωdust < 105 − 10(ρgrain/3 g cm3), for models with RV < 12 − ∞, respectively.

Dust in the host galaxies, and dust that may reside in the circumstellar (CS) environment, have important implications for the observed colours of SNe Ia. Using the Hubble Space Telescope and several ground based telescopes, we measure the extinction law, from UV to NIR, for a sample of six nearby SNe Ia. The SNe span a range of E(B − V ) ≈ 0.1 − 1.4 mag and RV  ≈ 1.5 − 2.7, showing a diversity of dust extinction parameters. We present mid- and far-infrared (IR) observations for a number of SNe Ia, obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescope, addressing CS dust as an explanation for “peculiar” extinction towards some SNe Ia. No excess IR emission is detected, limiting CS dust masses, Mdust < 105 solar masses. In particular, the timely appearance of SN 2014J in M82 - the closest SN Ia in several decades - allows for detailed studies, across an unprecedented wavelength range, of its lightcurve and spectral evolution along with the host galaxy and CS environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University , 2015. , 78 p.
Keyword [en]
supernovae, interstellar dust, circumstellar dust, cosmology
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-111157ISBN: 978-91-7649-071-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-111157DiVA: diva2:774505
Public defence
2015-02-05, FB52, Albanova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript. Paper 6: Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-01-14 Created: 2014-12-23 Last updated: 2017-09-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Combined constraints on intergalactic dust from quasar colours and the soft x ray background
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined constraints on intergalactic dust from quasar colours and the soft x ray background
2012 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 426, no 4, 3360-3368 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Unless properly corrected for, the existence of intergalactic dust will introduce a redshift-dependent magnitude offset to standard candle sources. This would lead to overestimated luminosity distances compared to a dust-free universe and bias the cosmological parameter estimation as derived from, e.g., Type Ia supernova observations. In this paper, we model the optical extinction and X-ray scattering properties of intergalactic dust grains to constrain the intergalactic opacity using a combined analysis of observed quasar colours and the soft X-ray background. Quasar colours effectively constrain the amount of intergalactic dust grains smaller than similar to 0.2 mu m, to the point where we expect the corresponding systematic error in the Type Ia supernova magnituderedshift relation to be sub-dominant. Soft X-ray background observations are helpful in improving the constraints on very large dust grains for which the amount of optical reddening is very small and therefore is more difficult to correct for. Our current upper limit corresponds to similar to 0.25 mag dimming at optical wavelengths for a source at redshift z = 1, which is too small to alleviate the need for dark energy but large in terms of relative error. However, we expect it to be possible to lower this bound considerably with an improved understanding of the possible sources of the X-ray background, in combination with observations of compact X-ray sources such as active galactic nuclei.

Keyword
scattering, dust, extinction, intergalactic medium, cosmology: theory
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-83013 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21940.x (DOI)000310064400053 ()
Note

AuthorCount:2;

Available from: 2012-12-05 Created: 2012-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Herschel limits on far-infrared emission from circumstellar dust around three nearby Type Ia supernovae
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Herschel limits on far-infrared emission from circumstellar dust around three nearby Type Ia supernovae
2013 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 431, no 1, L43-L47 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report upper limits on dust emission at far-infrared (IR) wavelengths from three nearby Type Ia supernovae: SNe 2011by, 2011fe and 2012cg. Observations were carried out at 70 and 160 mu m with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. None of the supernovae were detected in the far-IR, allowing us to place upper limits on the amount of pre-existing dust in the circumstellar environment. Due to its proximity, SN 2011fe provides the tightest constraints, M-dust less than or similar to 7 x 10(-3)M(circle dot) at a 3 sigma level for dust temperatures T-dust similar to 500K assuming silicate or graphite dust grains of size a = 0.1 mu m. For SNe 2011by and 2012cg the corresponding upper limits are less stringent, with M-dust less than or similar to 10(-1)M(circle dot) for the same assumptions.

Keyword
circumstellar matter, supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: SN 2011by, supernovae: individual: SN 2011fe, supernovae: individual: SN 2012cg, dust, extinction
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-90781 (URN)10.1093/mnrasl/slt005 (DOI)000318343600010 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

AuthorCount:3;

Available from: 2013-06-14 Created: 2013-06-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. THE RISE OF SN 2014J IN THE NEARBY GALAXY M82
Open this publication in new window or tab >>THE RISE OF SN 2014J IN THE NEARBY GALAXY M82
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2014 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 784, no 1, L12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the discovery of SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82. Given its proximity, it offers the best opportunity to date to study a thermonuclear supernova (SN) over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical, near-IR, and mid-IR observations on the rising light curve, orchestrated by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, show that SN 2014J is a spectroscopically normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), albeit exhibiting high-velocity features in its spectrum and heavily reddened by dust in the host galaxy. Our earliest detections start just hours after the fitted time of explosion. We use high-resolution optical spectroscopy to analyze the dense intervening material and do not detect any evolution in the resolved absorption features during the light curve rise. Similar to other highly reddened SNe Ia, a low value of total-to-selective extinction, R-V less than or similar to 2, provides the best match to our observations. We also study pre-explosion optical and near-IR images from Hubble Space Telescope with special emphasis on the sources nearest to the SN location.

Keyword
dust, extinction, galaxies: individual (Messier 82), supernovae: individual (SN 2014J)
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-102954 (URN)10.1088/2041-8205/784/1/L12 (DOI)000332786300012 ()
Note

AuthorCount:34;

Available from: 2014-04-30 Created: 2014-04-25 Last updated: 2017-09-19Bibliographically approved
4. THE PECULIAR EXTINCTION LAW OF SN 2014J MEASURED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>THE PECULIAR EXTINCTION LAW OF SN 2014J MEASURED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE
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2014 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 788, no 2, L21- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The wavelength dependence of the extinction of Type Ia SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82 has been measured using UV to near-IR photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Nordic Optical Telescope, and the Mount Abu Infrared Telescope. This is the first time that the reddening of an SN Ia is characterized over the full wavelength range of 0.2-2 mu m. A total-to-selective extinction, R-V >= 3.1, is ruled out with high significance. The best fit at maximum using a Galactic type extinction law yields R-V = 1.4 +/- 0.1. The observed reddening of SN 2014J is also compatible with a power-law extinction, A(lambda)/A(V) = (lambda/lambda(V))(p) as expected from multiple scattering of light, with p = -2.1 +/- 0.1. After correcting for differences in reddening, SN 2014J appears to be very similar to SN 2011 fe over the 14 broadband filter light curves used in our study.

Keyword
dust, extinction, galaxies: individual (Messier 82), supernovae: individual (SN 2014J)
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106335 (URN)10.1088/2041-8205/788/2/L21 (DOI)000338504500002 ()
Note

AuthorCount:13;

Available from: 2014-08-07 Created: 2014-08-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Spitzer observations of SN 2014J and properties of mid-IR emission in Type Ia supernovae
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spitzer observations of SN 2014J and properties of mid-IR emission in Type Ia supernovae
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2017 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 466, no 3, 3442-3449 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

SN 2014J in M 82 is the closest Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. The proximity allows for detailed studies of supernova physics and provides insights into the circumstellar and interstellar environment. In this work, we analyse Spitzer mid-infrared (mid-IR) data of SN 2014J in the 3.6 and 4.5 mu m wavelength range, together with several other nearby and well-studied SNe Ia. We compile the first composite mid-IR light-curve templates from our sample of SNe Ia, spanning the range from before peak brightness well into the nebular phase. Our observations indicate that SNe Ia form a very homogeneous class of objects at these wavelengths. Using the low-reddening supernovae for comparison, we constrain possible thermal emission from circumstellar dust around the highly reddened SN 2014J. We also study SNe 2006X and 2007le, where the presence of matter in the circumstellar environment has been suggested. No significant mid-IR excess is detected, allowing us to place upper limits on the amount of pre-existing dust in the circumstellar environment. For SN 2014J, M-dust less than or similar to 10(-5) M-circle dot within r(dust) similar to 10(17) cm, which is insufficient to account for the observed extinction. Similar limits are obtained for SNe 2006X and 2007le.

Keyword
circumstellar matter, supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: 2005df, 2006X, 2007af, 2007le, 2007sr, 2009ig, 2012cg, 2011fe, 2014J, dust, extinction
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-143627 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stw3350 (DOI)000398418600066 ()
Available from: 2017-05-30 Created: 2017-05-30 Last updated: 2017-05-30Bibliographically approved
6. Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 mu m
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 mu m
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 453, no 3, 3300-3328 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera 3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and NIR data provide complementary information. The combined data set covers the wavelength range 0.2-2 mu m. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to E(B - V) = 1.4 mag. We study the wavelength-dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterized by the total-to-selective extinction R-V. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with E(B - V) greater than or similar to 1 mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find R-V = 1.4 +/- 0.1 and R-V = 2.8 +/- 0.1. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted R-V by similar to 50 per cent allowing us to also measure R-V of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the Universe.

Keyword
circumstellar matter, supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: SNe 2012cg, supernovae: individual: 2012cu, dust, extinction
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-123790 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stv1505 (DOI)000363649000085 ()
Available from: 2016-06-30 Created: 2015-12-07 Last updated: 2017-09-19Bibliographically approved

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