RECOVERY OF THE CANDIDATE PROTOPLANET HD 100546 b WITH GEMINI/NICI AND DETECTION OF ADDITIONAL (PLANET-INDUCED ?) DISK STRUCTURE AT SMALL SEPARATIONS
2014 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 796, no 2, L30- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We report the first independent, second epoch (re-) detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover HD 100546 b with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to approximate to 12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0 ''.3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of approximate to 15 M-J. However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 M-J). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90 degrees. away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to approximate to 0 ''.45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 796, no 2, L30- p.
planetary systems, stars: early-type, stars: individual (HD 100546)
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-111416DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/796/2/L30ISI: 000345503400009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-111416DiVA: diva2:775750