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Spatio-temporal trends of PCBs in the Swedish freshwater environment 1981-2012
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
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2014 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, 45-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been monitored in perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in reference lakes since the late 1960s. Temporal trends and spatial patterns are currently monitored in nine and 32 lakes, respectively. Overall, PCB concentrations are decreasing. However, this is not consistent for all congeners across all lakes and species. Perch has comparatively low PCB concentrations relative to suggested target levels, but individual congener concentrations in some lakes are concerningly high. No temporal trend is seen for CB-118 and CB-153 in perch, but significant decreasing trends exist for Arctic char and pike, for which monitoring started earlier than for perch. The lower/higher chlorinated congener ratio decreased over time in most lakes, indicating fewer new emissions. CB-118 and CB-153 concentrations in perch show spatial gradients across Sweden, with higher concentrations found near urban/industrial areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 43, 45-57 p.
Keyword [en]
Fish, PCBs, Monitoring, Freshwater, Sweden, Trends
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-111414DOI: 10.1007/s13280-014-0561-4ISI: 000345292300005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-111414DiVA: diva2:775755
Note

AuthorCount:6;

Available from: 2015-01-05 Created: 2015-01-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Improved Assessment in Environmental Monitoring of POPs: Using monitoring data from the aquatic ecosystem and human milk
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved Assessment in Environmental Monitoring of POPs: Using monitoring data from the aquatic ecosystem and human milk
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thesis deals with several aspects of monitoring of persistent organic contaminants (POPs) in biological matrices, for example choice of sample, sampling design, and statistical treatment of data both for temporal and spatial trends and for compliance towards a set target value. The efficiency has been evaluated through statistical power analyses. Contaminant data from more than 4 decades from the Swedish National Monitoring Programs for monitoring of contaminants in biota (marine, freshwater and human health), has been quantitatively evaluated both temporally and spatially and for compliance. The aim was also to evaluate the suitability of different matrices, i.e. herring (Clupea harengus), guillemot (Uria aalge) egg, cod (Gadus morhua), perch (Perca fluviatilis), eelpout (Zoarces viviparous), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), pike (Esox lucius), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and human milk, for monitoring of POPs with the overall aim to improve the assessment within monitoring programs.

The results show that variation can be reduced by using pooled samples including more specimens but fewer chemical analyses, which in turn generate a higher statistical power to a lower cost, at least in cases where the cost of collection and sampling is considerably lower than the cost of chemical analysis. However, there are also a number of advantages using individual samples, such as information of sample variance and maximum value, which allows the choice of an appropriate central measure and direct adjustment of confounding factors.

Generally, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have decreased both in marine and freshwater biota but concentrations are still higher in the Baltic compared to e.g. the North Sea. The levels of dioxinlike-PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have decreased in human milk over time, but not to the same extent in fish and guillemot egg from the Baltic and the freshwater environment. This may be explained by the dietary advice developed by the Swedish Food Administration with the goal that girls, reproductive aged, and pregnant women should eat less food containing high levels of PCDD/Fs. Thus the levels in milk could continue to decrease at the same rate although the temporal trend in the environment has slowed down or leveled out.

The most essential regarding the choice of species and matrices for contaminant monitoring, is that the species and organ fit the purpose of the monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2016. 83 p.
Keyword
Environmental monitoring, temporal trends, power analysis, sampling strategy, PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB, PCDD/Fs, fish, bird eggs, blue mussels, human milk
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134769 (URN)978-91-7649-527-8 (ISBN)978-91-7649-528-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-09, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
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Available from: 2016-11-16 Created: 2016-10-18 Last updated: 2016-11-16Bibliographically approved

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