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Phonological Adoption through Bilingual Borrowing: Comparing Elite Bilinguals and Heritage Bilinguals
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the phonological integration of loanwords, the original structures of the donor language can either be adopted as innovations or adapted to the recipient language. This dissertation investigates how structural (i.e. phonetic, phonological, morpho-phonological) and non-structural (i.e. sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic) factors interact in determining which of these two integration strategies is preferred. Factors that affect the accuracy of the structure’s perception and production in the donor language as a result of its acquisition as a second language are given special consideration. The three studies in the dissertation examine how the same phonological structure from different donor languages is integrated into the same recipient language Turkish by two different types of initial borrowers: elite bilinguals in Turkey and heritage bilinguals in Sweden. The three investigated structures are word-final [l] after back vowels, long segments in word-final closed syllables, and word-initial onset clusters. The main hypothesis is that adoption will be more prevalent in heritage bilinguals than in elite bilinguals. Four necessary conditions for adoption are identified in the analysis. Firstly, the donor-language structure must have high perceptual salience. Secondly, the borrowers must have acquired the linguistic competence to produce a structure accurately. Thirdly, the borrowers must have sufficient sociolinguistic incentive to adopt a structure as an innovation. Fourthly, prosodic structures require higher incentive to be adopted than segments and clusters of segments. The main hypothesis is partially confirmed. The counterexamples involve either cases where the salience of the structure was high in the elite bilinguals’ borrowing but low in the heritage bilinguals’ borrowing, or cases where the structure’s degree of acquisition difficulty was low. Therefore, it is concluded that structural factors have the final say in the choice of integration strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Stockholm University , 2015. , 130 p.
Series
Dissertations in Bilingualism, ISSN 1400-5921 ; 24
Keyword [en]
loanword phonology, language contact, bilingualism, second-language acquisition, perceptual salience, language dominance, linguistic variation, sociolinguistics, Turkish
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Bilingualism
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-112792ISBN: 978-91-7649-080-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-112792DiVA: diva2:781029
Public defence
2015-02-20, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. 

Available from: 2015-01-29 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the integration of /l/ in Turkish in borrowings from Arabic and Swedish
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the integration of /l/ in Turkish in borrowings from Arabic and Swedish
2010 (English)In: Turkic languages, ISSN 1431-4983, Vol. 14, no 2, 153-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates the phonological integration of the front coda /l/ after a back vowel in the final rime of words borrowed from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish. This original donor structure is interesting because it in conflict with the core rules of Turkish phonology. Several sub-disciplines of linguistics have dealt with the role of different phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the phonological integration of lexical borrowings but there is no consensus on their respective weights in borrowing and on how their interaction is to be conceptualised. The Arabic data in the study are based on historical loanwords while the Swedish data have been obtained through an experiment. The focus of the article is the choice between adoption and adaptation as integration strategies and how different factors interact in producing the attested integration patterns. The results show that adoption is predominantly preferred to adaptation in both cases due to the dominant status of the donor languages in the contexts of borrowing. Hence, it is argued that sociolinguistic factors play the main role in these two particular cases.

Keyword
phonology, sociolinguistics, loanwords, Arabic, Turkish, Swedish, language contact
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Bilingualism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-68459 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-03 Created: 2012-01-03 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved
2. The role of perceptual salience in bilingual speakers' integration of illicit long segments in loanwords
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of perceptual salience in bilingual speakers' integration of illicit long segments in loanwords
2014 (English)In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 143, 162-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates how bilingual borrowers integrate originally long vowels and consonants in loanwords from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish in illicit positions. Both historical corpus data and data from an elicitation task are used. The main focus is on the role of perceptual salience and the choice between adaptation and adoption as different integration strategies. The results show that length is accurately perceived in both cases of borrowing due to the particular linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts of second language acquisition. Phonologically long Arabic vowels and consonants as well as not phonologically but phonetically long Swedish vowels with high salience are adopted as innovations by the bilingual borrowers. The latter adoption confirms that the input to loanword integration is not phonological but phonetic in nature, i.e. the surface form. Phonologically long Swedish consonants with low salience due to short duration are, instead, adapted through shortening. This adaptation is done in production through a process called filtering in with the help of feedback from perception. The paper proposes that perceptual salience plays an important role not only in monolingual but also in bilingual borrowing by concluding that high perceptual salience is necessary but not sufficient for adoption in bilingual borrowing.

Keyword
Loanword phonology, Bilingualism, Second language acquisition, Language change, Turkish, Salience
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Bilingualism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-104412 (URN)10.1016/j.lingua.2014.02.006 (DOI)000335544900010 ()
Note

AuthorCount:1;

Available from: 2014-06-17 Created: 2014-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Adoption in Loanword Phonology: Looking Beyond Linguistic Competence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adoption in Loanword Phonology: Looking Beyond Linguistic Competence
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates how linguistic competence and sociolinguistic incentive contribute to the preference for adopting illicit onset clusters in established loanwords in Turkish. The participants are English-Turkish bilinguals in Turkey and Swedish-Turkish bilinguals in Sweden. Competence is measured through second-language pronunciation and incentive is operationalised through second-language dominance and degree of Turkish use. The data comprise French and English loanwords that are embedded in an oral fill-in-the-blanks test and that have phonetically similar counterparts in English and Swedish. The results show that the bilinguals in Sweden have significantly higher cluster adoption rates than the bilinguals in Turkey due to an overlap of high competence and high incentive in the Swedish context where Turkish is a minority language. Statistical analyses show that incentive has greater impact than competence in this sample.

Keyword
loanword phonology, onset clusters, contact-induced change, bilingualism, second-language acquisition, language dominance, Turkish
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Bilingualism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-112795 (URN)
Available from: 2015-01-15 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2016-09-12Bibliographically approved

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