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Latitudinal variation in diapause duration and post-winter development in two pierid butterflies in relation to phenological specialization
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
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2015 (English)In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 177, no 1, 181-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Diapause plays a central role in insect life cycles by allowing survival during adverse seasonal conditions as well as synchronizing life cycles with the period of mate and food availability. Seasonal timing is expected to be particularly important for species that are dependent on resources available during a short time window-so-called phenological specialists-and latitudinal clines in seasonality are expected to favor local adaptation in phenological timing. However, to what degree latitudinal variation in diapause dynamics and post-winter development due to such local adaptation is influenced by the degree of phenological specialization is not well known. We experimentally studied two pierid butterfly species and found that the phenological specialist Anthocharis cardamines had shorter diapause duration than the phenological generalist Pieris napi along a latitudinal gradient in Sweden. Moreover, diapause duration increased with latitude in P. napi but not in A. cardamines. Sensitivity of the two species to winter thermal conditions also differed; additional cold temperature during the winter period shortened diapause duration for P. napi pupae but not for A. cardamines pupae. In both species, post-winter pupal development was faster after longer periods of cold conditions, and more southern populations developed faster than northern populations. Post-winter development was also invariably faster at higher temperatures in both species. We argue that the observed differences in diapause dynamics between the two species might be explained by the difference in phenological specialization that influences the costs of breaking diapause too early in the season.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 177, no 1, 181-190 p.
Keyword [en]
Anthocharis cardamines, Pieris napi, Local adaptation, Voltinism, Development
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-113960DOI: 10.1007/s00442-014-3125-1ISI: 000347406500017OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-113960DiVA: diva2:789878
Note

AuthorCount:5;

Available from: 2015-02-20 Created: 2015-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effects of climate on phenological synchrony between butterflies and their host plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of climate on phenological synchrony between butterflies and their host plants
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Shifts in species’ phenologies and phenological asynchronies between the interacting organisms have received a lot of attention in the context of climate change. Changes in temporal overlap between species, caused by phenological asynchrony, make species depending on one another become so separated in time that they can no longer interact. This may have important consequences both for single species, like fluctuations in abundances, and for the functioning of whole communities by creating mismatches between trophic levels and rearrangements of community structure. This thesis focuses on the impact of temperatures on spring timing and phenological synchrony in a herbivorous insect – host plant system, consisting of the orange tipbutterfly Anthocharis cardamines and five of its Brassicaceae host plant species. Paper I demonstrates that diapause duration and winter thermal conditions can determine the timing of spring emergence in the herbivore, and these traits may differ between species with different feeding strategies. In paper II we show that thermal reaction norms of post-winterdevelopment of A. cardamines display cogradient latitudinal variation.Paper III shows that temperature-mediated phenological plasticity of A. cardamines butterflies and a majority of the most used host plant species is similar within populations originating from different latitudes. Thus, the species’ timing appeared well conserved in response to thermal variation. In paper IV we explored the importance of the butterfly’s adult emergence and thermal conditions on the succeeding part of the butterfly’s life-cycle – larval development. The outcome from the interaction was examined for both the insect and the plant side. The degree in phenological overlap between the female butterflies and host plants as well as temperatures during larval development were found to influence larval development but had no effect on plant reproductive fitness. The four papers of the presented thesis demonstrate that developmental preadaptations, evolvedin a herbivore to maintain phenological synchrony with host plants across yearly variation of spring conditions, can prevent disruption of the interaction under a wide range of temperatures. This indicates that temporary constrained interactions are not always vulnerable to decoupling, particularly if they involve generalist strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 2015. 16 p.
Keyword
Phenology, phenological synchrony, Anthocharis cardamines, Pieris napi, latitudinal variation
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-116664 (URN)978-91-7649-162-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-04, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
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Ekoklim
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Submitted.

Available from: 2015-05-12 Created: 2015-04-22 Last updated: 2015-06-23Bibliographically approved

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