Latitudinal variation in diapause duration and post-winter development in two pierid butterflies in relation to phenological specialization
2015 (English)In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 177, no 1, 181-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Diapause plays a central role in insect life cycles by allowing survival during adverse seasonal conditions as well as synchronizing life cycles with the period of mate and food availability. Seasonal timing is expected to be particularly important for species that are dependent on resources available during a short time window-so-called phenological specialists-and latitudinal clines in seasonality are expected to favor local adaptation in phenological timing. However, to what degree latitudinal variation in diapause dynamics and post-winter development due to such local adaptation is influenced by the degree of phenological specialization is not well known. We experimentally studied two pierid butterfly species and found that the phenological specialist Anthocharis cardamines had shorter diapause duration than the phenological generalist Pieris napi along a latitudinal gradient in Sweden. Moreover, diapause duration increased with latitude in P. napi but not in A. cardamines. Sensitivity of the two species to winter thermal conditions also differed; additional cold temperature during the winter period shortened diapause duration for P. napi pupae but not for A. cardamines pupae. In both species, post-winter pupal development was faster after longer periods of cold conditions, and more southern populations developed faster than northern populations. Post-winter development was also invariably faster at higher temperatures in both species. We argue that the observed differences in diapause dynamics between the two species might be explained by the difference in phenological specialization that influences the costs of breaking diapause too early in the season.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 177, no 1, 181-190 p.
Anthocharis cardamines, Pieris napi, Local adaptation, Voltinism, Development
Research subject Animal Ecology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-113960DOI: 10.1007/s00442-014-3125-1ISI: 000347406500017OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-113960DiVA: diva2:789878