Mass Balance of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids (PFAAs) in a Pristine Boreal Catchment
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Mass balances of ten individual PFAAs in two nested pristine catchments in Northern Sweden with different sizes and hydrological functions were assembled for 2011-2012. Concentrations of PFAAs in rain and snowmelt, as well as in stream water at the outlet of the two watersheds were measured and used to calculate PFAA inputs and outputs to the catchments. The results generally showed a great excess of PFAA inputs for both catchments. During spring flow the stream water showed PFAA patterns resembling the patterns in rain (as opposed to snowmelt) and the mass balances were roughly closed for several PFAAs, suggesting that snowmelt water infiltrating the ground had displaced water from the previous summer. Comparison of PFAA mass balances between the two catchments further suggested that atmospheric inputs of short-chain (replacement) perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids had increased in the years before sampling, while inputs of the legacy perfluorooctane sulfonic acid had decreased. The overall positive mass balances indicate that a considerable portion of the PFAAs deposited from the atmosphere are stored in soil and may be released to surface and marine water environments in the future.
PFAAs, Atmospheric deposition, Streams, Remote region, Mass balance
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject Applied Environmental Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-115886OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-115886DiVA: diva2:800715
FunderSwedish Research Council Formas