Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in Swedish food: The relative importance of direct and indirect dietary exposure
2015 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 198, 108-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We analyzed food market basket samples obtained in Sweden from 1999, 2005, and 2010 for perfluoroallcyl acids (PFAAs) and a range of precursor compounds. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors were detected in all food year pools with the highest concentrations in 1999. Six polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs, 4:2/6:2, 6:2/6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2/8:2, 6:2/10:2, and 10:2/10:2) were detected in the year pools with the highest Sigma diPAP concentrations in 1999 and 2005. All precursors were predominantly found in meat, fish, and/or eggs based on analysis of individual food groups from 1999. Based on year pools, PFOS precursors contributed between 4 and 1% as an indirect source to total dietary PFOS intakes between 1999 and 2010. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exposure originated entirely from diPAPs, whereas for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), diPAPs contributed between 1 and 19% to total exposure. The lowest precursor contributions were generally seen in food samples from 2010.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 198, 108-115 p.
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), Precursors, Dietary exposure, Temporal changes, PAPs
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-115988DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.12.022ISI: 000350191600015PubMedID: 25590128OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-115988DiVA: diva2:802079