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Home ranges and utilization distributions of African elephants in Ugalla landscape, Western Tanzania
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (Biogeografi och geomatik)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. (Biogeografi och geomatik)
Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Alaska.
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Identifying the core areas used by wildlife species in a landscape is relevant for management and conservation of the species and their habitats. In Tanzania, little is known about the basic ecology of most medium-sized and large mammals in Miombo ecosystems of Western Tanzania. In this study, we tracked six African elephants in the Ugalla landscape in Western Tanzania using the GPS collars in order to depict their home range and habitat utilizations. Collared elephants used different parts of the Ugalla landscape in both wet and dry seasons (regardless of landscape management differences), but their main distribution were focused to the Ugalla Game Reserve due to permanent water availability in the Ugalla River and regular patrols. Sizes of home ranges were estimated using 100% Minimum Convex Polygons and Time-Locoh Convex Hulls (T-LoCoH) method and the results differed among the six collared elephants. Effective conservation is challenging, because it involves obvious complexities and approaches that vary from science and planning to policy and site-specific measures, but we recommend joint anti-poaching patrols in Ugalla landscape that goes beyond the Ugalla Game Reserve to other adjacent protected areas.

Keyword [en]
National Category
Physical Geography
Research subject
Physical Geography
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-116281OAI: diva2:806003
Available from: 2015-04-17 Created: 2015-04-17 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. How elephants utilize a miombo-wetland ecosystem in Ugalla landscape, Western Tanzania
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How elephants utilize a miombo-wetland ecosystem in Ugalla landscape, Western Tanzania
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

African elephants are ‘keystone’ species with respect to biodiversity conservation in Africa since they maintain habitats that support several animal communities by changing vegetation structure through foraging and by dispersing seeds between landscapes. Elephants are also ‘flagship’ species because, given their impressive size, they can make people sympathetic and stimulate local and international concerns for their protection. Economically, elephants contribute to national revenues as tourists are willing to pay to watch them. Despite all these factors, little is known however about elephant movement and how they utilize resources, especially in miombo-wetland ecosystems. This thesis investigates how elephants utilize resources in a miombo-wetland ecosystem in the Ugalla landscape of Western Tanzania over different protected areas containing different resource users. Using Global Positioning System (GPS) collars fitted to six elephants, it was observed that some elephant families are not confined in one protected area in the Ugalla landscape. Rather, they moved readily between different protected areas. Elephant movements were restricted to areas near the rivers, especially the Ugalla River, during the dry season and were dispersed widely during the wet season. As they move, elephants in the miombo woodlands of Ugalla selected the most abundant woody plants for browsing. Common to many woody plants, the browsed plants were short of mineral nutrients (e.g., sodium, calcium). Elephants obtained additional minerals by eating soils from certain termite mounds. Soils from termite mounds are richer in mineral elements (e.g., sodium, calcium, iron) compared to soils from the surrounding flood plain or compared to the browsed plants. However, the recorded termite mounds from which elephants eat soils were not evenly distributed in the landscape but confined mainly to the flood plains in the Ugalla Game Reserve. The Ugalla River, which is the main source of water for the elephants and other animals and also supports fishing activities by the local people in Ugalla during the dry seasons, is infested by the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Such infestation potentially limits access to these precious surface water supplies. In addition at the regional level, the Ugalla River is among the major rivers that flow into the Lake Tanganyika which is shared by the countries of Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia. Thus, the spread of water hyacinth if left unchecked threatens to impact Lake Tanganyika, affecting many countries and ecosystem services. This thesis highlights that sustainable conservation of biodiversity in different protected areas in the Ugalla landscape requires an integrated management approach that will embrace conservation of different interrelated landscape resources required by both wildlife and the rural poor populations for their livelihoods. Regular coordinated wildlife anti-poaching patrols should be initiated across the entire Ugalla landscape because the elephants, among other wildlife, utilize different protected areas in Ugalla. Local communities should also be engaged in conservation initiatives (e.g., controlling the spread of the water hyacinth) as these directly impact local livelihoods.


Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm Univeristy, 2015
Dissertations from the Department of Physical Geography, ISSN 1653-7211 ; 49
Biodiversity, Browsing, Elephants, Forage, GPS collars, Mineral elements, Miombo woodlands, Protected areas, Termite mounds, Ugalla, Water hyacinth, Woody plants abundance
National Category
Physical Geography
Research subject
Physical Geography
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-116286 (URN)978-91-7649-161-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-29, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-05-07 Created: 2015-04-17 Last updated: 2015-06-23Bibliographically approved

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