Concentrations of legacy and emerging flame retardants in air and soil on a rural-urban transect in the UK West Midlands
2016 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 148, 195-203 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Passive air samples were collected monthly for 6 months from 8 sites along a transect of Birmingham, United Kingdom between June 2012 and January 2013. Soil samples were collected once at each site. Average concentrations of BDE-209, ΣPBDEs17:183 and ΣPBDEs in ambient air were 150, 49, and 180 pg m−3, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs were negatively correlated with distance from the city centre, exhibiting an “urban pulse”. The average ΣHBCDD air concentration was 100 pg m−3, however concentrations were not correlated with distance from the city centre. Several emerging flame retardants (EFRs) were identified in air and/or soil samples: 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEH-TEBP), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DBCH), allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and dechlorane plus (DP or DDC-CO). Average concentrations of BDE-209, ΣPBDEs17:183 and ΣPBDEs in soil were 11, 3.6, and 15 ng g−1 soil organic matter. PBDE concentrations in soil were higher at sites closest to the city centre, however correlations with distance from the city centre were not significant. BDEs-47 and -99 contributed more to ΣPBDEs in soil samples than air samples, but in both, the predominant congener was BDE-209. BATE was more abundant in air than soil but ATE was abundant in soil but not air.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 148, 195-203 p.
PBDEs, HBCDD, HBCD, EFRs, Air, Soil
Research subject Applied Environmental Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-116506DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.01.034ISI: 000371099700023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-116506DiVA: diva2:806609
FunderEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 264600NERC - the Natural Environment Research Council, NE/G01146X/1