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Arctic Ocean Water Mass Transformation in S-T Coordinates
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
2015 (English)In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 45, no 4, 1025-1050 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, watermass transformations in the Arctic Ocean are studied using a recently developed salinity-temperature (S-T) framework. The framework allows the water mass transformations to be succinctly quantified by computing the surface and internal diffusive fluxes in S-T coordinates. This study shows how the method can be applied to a specific oceanic region, in this case the Arctic Ocean, by including the advective exchange of water masses across the boundaries of the region. Based on a simulation with a global ocean circulation model, the authors examine the importance of various parameterized mixing processes and surface fluxes for the transformation of water across isohaline and isothermal surfaces in the ArcticOcean. The model-based results reveal a broadly realistic Arctic Ocean where the inflowing Atlantic and Pacific waters are primarily cooled and freshened before exiting back to the North Atlantic. In the model, the water mass transformation in the T direction is primarily accomplished by the surface heat flux. However, the surface freshwater flux plays a minor role in the transformation of water toward lower salinities, which is mainly driven by a downgradient mixing of salt in the interior ocean. Near the freezing line, the seasonal melt and growth of sea ice influences the transformation pattern.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 45, no 4, 1025-1050 p.
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-117335DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-14-0197.1ISI: 000352542800006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-117335DiVA: diva2:812425
Note

AuthorCount:4;

Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Freshwater processes and water mass transformation in the Arctic Ocean
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freshwater processes and water mass transformation in the Arctic Ocean
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis explores freshwater-related processes and water mass transformation in the Arctic Ocean. Knowledge of these processes is important from both a local and a global perspective. Globally, because the export of cold and low saline water and sea ice might influence the North Atlantic and global meridional overturning circulation. Locally, because freshwater processes affect the vertical stratification and permit favorable conditions for the ice cover.

Models of different complexity are the main tools of the present work. A part of the material considers how these models can be used to examine the key processes governing freshwater balance. Additionally, the freshwater budgets amongst 10 different ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) are compared and robust features and weaknesses identified.

A large part considers the freshwater processes governing the stratification with an emphasis on the low saline upper parts. The interactions between freshwater sources and sinks are studied in an OGCM using passive tracers. It is found that the composition, pathways and shelf-basin exchange of low saline water primarily involve processes linked to Siberian runoff, Pacific water and sea-ice melting and formation. Motivated by observed changes and paleorecords the sensitivity of the stratification is further explored in freshwater perturbation experiments with an OGCM. The response yields a deeper halocline for decreasing freshwater input, in line with a theoretical model.

The final part focuses on a new framework for analyzing water mass transformations. In the framework volume, heat and salt budgets are computed in salinity-temperature space. Using different OGCMs it is shown how surface and interior processes transform inflowing waters towards colder and fresher waters and how the halocline renewal rate can be estimated. Limiting cases for the water mass transformation balance are identified by separating contributions from surface, internal and boundary fluxes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 2014. 44 p.
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107594 (URN)978-91-7447-998-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-05, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-10-14 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2017-03-03Bibliographically approved

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