Physical-chemical properties and evaluative fate modelling of 'emerging' and 'novel' brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor environment
Number of Authors: 3
2015 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 524, 416-426 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Several groups of flame retardants (FRs) have entered the market in recent years as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but little is known about their physical-chemical properties or their environmental transport and fate. Here we make best estimates of the physical-chemical properties and undertake evaluative modelling assessments (indoors and outdoors) for 35 so-called 'novel' and 'emerging' brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and 22 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). A QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) based technique is used to reduce uncertainty in physical-chemical properties and to aid property selection for modelling, but it is evident that more, high quality property data are required for improving future assessments. Evaluative modelling results show that many of the alternative FRs, mainly alternative BFRs and some of the halogenated OPFRs, behave similarly to the PBDEs both indoors and outdoors. These alternative FRs exhibit high overall persistence (Pov), long-range transport potential (LRTP) and POP-like behaviour and on that basis cannot be regarded as suitable replacements to PBDEs. A group of low molecular weight alternative BFRs and non-halogenated OPFRs show a potentially better environmental performance based on Pov and LRTP metrics. Results must be interpreted with caution though since there are significant uncertainties and limited data to allow for thorough model evaluation. Additional environmental parameters such as toxicity and bioaccumulative potential as well as functionality issues should be considered in an industrial substitution strategy.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 524, 416-426 p.
BFRs, OPFRs, Indoor fate, Persistence, Physical-chemical properties
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject Applied Environmental Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-118329DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.106ISI: 000355010400042OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-118329DiVA: diva2:823755