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Determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC-photoionization tandem mass spectrometry in wood smoke particles and soil samples
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Number of Authors: 4
2015 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 407, no 16, 4523-4534 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A simple and fast method for analysis of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pressurized liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography utilizing photoionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Simultaneous separation and determination of nine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and two hydroxy biphenyls could be performed in negative mode with a run time of 12 min, including equilibration in 5 min. The calibration curves were in two concentration ranges; 1-50 ng/mL and 0.01-50 mu g/mL, with coefficients of correlation R (2) > 0.997. The limits of detection and method quantification limits were in the range of 9-56 pg and 5-38 ng/g, respectively. A two-level full factorial experimental design was used for screening of conditions with the highest impact on the extraction. The extraction procedure was automated and suitable for a large number of samples. The extraction recoveries ranged from 70 to 102 % and the matrix effects were between 92 and 104 %. The overall method was demonstrated on wood smoke particles and soil samples with good analytical performance, and five OH-PAHs were determined in the concentration range of 0.19-210 mu g/g. As far as we know, hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in wood smoke and soil samples using photoionization mass spectrometry for the first time in this present study. Accordingly, this study shows that high performance liquid chromatography photoionization tandem mass spectrometry can be a good option for the determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex environmental samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 407, no 16, 4523-4534 p.
Keyword [en]
HPLC-APPI-MS/MS, Photoionization, Hydroxylated PAHs, OH-PAHs, Wood smoke, Soil
National Category
Biological Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-118521DOI: 10.1007/s00216-015-8638-xISI: 000355152500003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-118521DiVA: diva2:825332
Available from: 2015-06-23 Created: 2015-06-22 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. From source to the environment: Strategies for identification and determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex particulate matrices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From source to the environment: Strategies for identification and determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex particulate matrices
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Adverse health effects have been linked to exposure to particulate matter, and wood combustion is considered as an important source of harmful particulate matter in the urban air and environment. Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of compounds with toxic, endocrine disrupting and carcinogenic properties. Sources of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are different incomplete combustion processes, such as coal and wood combustion. They can also be formed by microbiological and/or photochemical degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment.

This thesis describes analytical strategies and methods that have been developed and used for screening, tentative identification and determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wood combustion and urban air particles. Conventional targeted analytical methods have been developed for compounds with available reference standards, while suspect and non-target screening strategies have been used for the identification of suspects and unknown compounds lacking reference standards. Each step of the developed analytical methods is described and discussed: the choice of the analytical strategy, sampling of the matrices, extraction, clean-up, instrumental analysis, data processing and validation of the methods.

The influence of wood type (birch, spruce, pine and aspen) and burning conditions (nominal and high burn rate) on the hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions has been examined, showing that emissions from nominal burn rate combustion correspond on average to 14 % of the emissions from high burn rate combustion. It has been shown that spruce and pine have the highest emissions for nominal burn rate and high burn rate combustion, respectively.

The composition of wood combustion particles has been examined and 32 suspect hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been tentatively identified together with 20 other oxygen-containing small molecular weight compounds. Furthermore, the presence of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particles from an urban background and a car tunnel has been investigated, and nine target and 11 suspect hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined and tentatively identified, respectively.

In summary, this thesis has shown that wood combustion is an important emission source of hydroxylated aromatic hydrocarbons and that the chemical composition of the emitted particles strongly depends on both burning conditions and wood type. Furthermore, the findings suggest that there might be other sources of these compounds in the urban environment than wood burning, such as the traffic. Thus, further investigations are required to fully understand the formation, sources and presence of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. The suitability of different analytical strategies and methods for identification and determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is also discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2017. 80 p.
Keyword
OH-PAHs, hydroxy-PAHs, particulate matter, PM, airborne particles, combustion particles, wood combustion, suspect screening, non-target screening, high resolution mass spectrometry, HRMS, atmospheric pressure photoionization, APPI
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-137214 (URN)978-91-7649-646-6 (ISBN)978-91-7649-647-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-02-24, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2016-12-30 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved

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