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Monte Carlo calculated and experimentally determined output correction factors for small field detectors in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion beams
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
Number of Authors: 4
2015 (English)In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 60, no 10, 3959-3973 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The measurement of output factors (OF) for the small photon beams generated by Leksell Gamma Knife (R) (LGK) radiotherapy units is a challenge for the physicist due to the under or over estimation of these factors by a vast majority of the detectors commercially available. Output correction factors, introduced in the international formalism published by Alfonso (2008 Med. Phys. 35 5179-86), standardize the determination of OFs for small photon beams by correcting detector-reading ratios to yield OFs in terms of absorbed-dose ratios. In this work output correction factors for a number of detectors have been determined for LGK Perfexion (TM) Co-60 gamma-ray beams by Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and measurements. The calculations were made with the MC system PENELOPE, scoring the energy deposited in the active volume of the detectors and in a small volume of water; the detectors simulated were two silicon diodes, one liquid ionization chamber (LIC), alanine and TLD. The calculated LIC output correction factors were within +/- 0.4%, and this was selected as the reference detector for experimental determinations where output correction factors for twelve detectors were measured, normalizing their readings to those of the LIC. The MC-calculated and measured output correction factors for silicon diodes yielded corrections of up to 5% for the smallest LGK collimator size of 4 mm diameter. The air ionization chamber measurements led to extremely large output correction factors, caused by the well-known effect of partial volume averaging. The corrections were up to 7% for the natural diamond detector in the 4 mm collimator, also due to partial volume averaging, and decreased to within about +/- 0.6% for the smaller synthetic diamond detector. The LIC, showing the smallest corrections, was used to investigate machine-to-machine output factor differences by performing measurements in four LGK units with different dose rates. These resulted in OFs within +/- 0.6% and +/- 0.2% for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively, providing evidence for the use of generic OFs for these LGK beams. Using the experimentally derived output correction factors, OFs can be measured using a wide range of commercially available detectors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 60, no 10, 3959-3973 p.
Keyword [en]
Leksell Gamma Knife perfexion, small field dosimetry, Monte Carlo
National Category
Medical Engineering Clinical Medicine
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-118538DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/60/10/3959ISI: 000355203100007OAI: diva2:826092
Available from: 2015-06-24 Created: 2015-06-22 Last updated: 2015-06-24Bibliographically approved

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Benmakhlouf, HamzaAndreo, Pedro
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