Does Manager Gender Matter?: The Association between Female Manager and Wages of Male and Female Employees
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Women in the Swedish labor market have lower wage than men on average. There are multiple reasons for this gender wage differential. Among other things, processes at the organizational level have been stressed. Some researchers argue that the gender of the manager has an effect on wages and that this effect might differ for men and women. Prior studies have analyzed the potential effect of manager gender on wages, but few empirical studies have scrutinized the question. The studies that exist use the proportion of female versus male managers in the organization as a measure of the effect of manager gender on wages. This paper however offers a direct test of the association of the gender of the immediate manager with men’s and women’s wages. Specifically, two hypotheses were tested: that (i) a female manager is negatively associated with women’s wages (ii) a female manager is negatively associated with men’s wages. To address the hypotheses, the analysis provides OLS regressions (for men and women separately) using survey data from European Social Survey (ESS) 2004 and 2010. The analysis includes theoretically and empirically relevant variables clustered in block of human capital, organizational and individual level variables. The results show that men’s wages are negatively influenced by having a female manager once human capital was adjusted for. There is no evidence that women’s wages are affected by having a female manager, since the share of women in the occupation and in the firm fully explains the negative association between female manager and wages for women. For female respondents, organizational factors seem to be of greater importance for wage determination than the gender of the immediate manager.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 43 p.
gender, wages, female manager, Sweden, employees
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-118856OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-118856DiVA: diva2:841240
Halldén, Karin, Forskare
Evertsson, Marie, Universitetslektor