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Spatial and temporal trends of the Stockholm Convention POPs in mothers' milk - a global review
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
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Number of Authors: 5
2015 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 12, 8989-9041 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of environmental and health concern for more than half a century and have their own intergovernmental regulation through the Stockholm Convention, from 2001. One major concern is the nursing child's exposure to POPs, a concern that has led to a very large number of scientific studies on POPs in mothers' milk. The present review is a report on the assessment on worldwide spatial distributions of POPs and of their temporal trends. The data presented herein is a compilation based on scientific publications between 1995 and 2011. It is evident that the concentrations in mothers' milk depend on the use of pesticides and industrial chemicals defined as POPs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are higher in the more industrialized areas, Europe and Northern America, whereas pesticides are higher in Africa and Asia and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reported in higher concentrations in the USA. POPs are consequently distributed to women in all parts of the world and are thus delivered to the nursing child. The review points out several major problems in the reporting of data, which are crucial to enable high quality comparisons. Even though the data set is large, the comparability is hampered by differences in reporting. In conclusion, much more detailed instructions are needed for reporting POPs in mothers' milk. Temporal trend data for POPs in mothers' milk is scarce and is of interest when studying longer time series. The only two countries with long temporal trend studies are Japan and Sweden. In most cases, the trends show decreasing concentrations of POPs in mothers' milk. However, hexabromocyclododecane is showing increasing temporal concentration trends in both Japan and Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 22, no 12, 8989-9041 p.
Keyword [en]
Breast milk, Persistent organic pollutants, Stockholm Convention, DDT, Dioxin, HCH, HCB, PBDE, HBCDD
National Category
Chemical Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-119161DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-4080-zISI: 000356453000020OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-119161DiVA: diva2:845425
Available from: 2015-08-11 Created: 2015-07-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Persistent halogenated pollutants in mothers´ milk
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistent halogenated pollutants in mothers´ milk
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are substances that degrade slowly, are distributed wotldwide, bioaccumulate and are harmful to both animals and humans. The release of POPs to the environment was the preamble to human background contamination. In the mid-20th century it became clear to scientists and policy makers that even the mothers´ milk was contaminated by POPs. This led to national and global monitoring programs to assess the extent of contamination and subsequently to ban several POPs via the Stockholm Convention.

The concentrations of dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD), -furans (PCDF) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB) is analysed in a retrospektive time trend study. The findings show a faster decrease of dioxin concentrations 2002-2011, compared to the whole series, 1972-2011. The transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from mother to child via the milk is investigated and a relationship between both the PBDE molecule’s size and time post partum of the sampling and the ability to transfer to the milk is found. A literature review concerning the POPs in human milk finds, in addition to accounting for POP concentrations; that some substances are investigated more thoroughly than others; DDT and PCB compared to Aldrine and Toxaphene and that certain geographical areas are more well-studied than others, e.g. Europe compared to Africa. The study also shows a strong over all need for better reporting protocols. To understand the current and emerging POPs present in mothers´ milk screening of a larger than normal sample of mothers´ milk can give new insights. The development of a method designed to tackle the problems of large fat rich sample and still to be as benign as possible to the analytes was undertaken. The method is subsequently applied to a both Swedish and Chinese pooled sample to show the differences in POP exposure between countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University, 2014. 41 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-103050 (URN)978-91-7447-921-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-05, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, 10:00 (English)
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Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-05-14 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2016-10-24Bibliographically approved

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