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Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles - a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
2015 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 8, 5842-5849 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from “organic cotton” equipped with the “Nordic Ecolabel” (“Svanenmärkt”). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 22, no 8, 5842-5849 p.
Keyword [en]
HPLC-MS/MS, Benzothiazoles, Benzotriazoles, Clothing, Textiles, Garments
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-119612DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3691-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-119612DiVA: diva2:847000
Available from: 2015-08-18 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chemicals in textiles: A potential source for human exposure and environmental pollution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemicals in textiles: A potential source for human exposure and environmental pollution
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The wide use of chemicals in textile production is common knowledge, whilst very little has been done to disclose the potentially harmful compounds hiding in our closet. The initial part of this work focused on explorative screening of textile materials in common clothing. Non-targeted analysis of a set of sixty garments revealed the presence of thousands of compounds, among which over a hundred were tentatively identified. Depending on the frequency of occurrence in textile, skin penetrating properties and toxicological data, candidate compounds were selected for confirmation. Analytical methods were developed for their identification and quantification, with focus set on four groups of compounds: quinolines, benzothiazoles, benzotriazoles and aromatic amines. The analytical methods are based on ultrasonic extraction, followed by solid phase clean-up, combined with GC/MS or LC/MS/MS analysis. Concentrations of many target analytes were notably higher in polyester samples compared to garments made from cotton and blended material. The release during washing was investigated for two of the compounds groups, quinolines and benzothiazoles. The decreased concentrations in the garments suggest that laundry is a source of emission of these chemicals into household wastewater, and possibly further into the aquatic environment. Due to the slow decrease of the concentration in the garments when washed, substantial amounts of the compounds will remain in the textiles for a long time, with the possibility of exposure to the skin of potential harmful compounds as a result.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2015. 53 p.
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-120010 (URN)978-91-7649-225-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-16, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-09-24 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved

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