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Biomineralization stimulated peri-titanium implants prepared by selective laser melting
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
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(English)In: Journal of Materiomics, ISSN 2352-8478Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Titanium implants prepared by selective laser melting (SLM), a method of additive manufacturing, were subjected to implantation in beagle dogs for two and four weeks. Argon ion beam-polished cross sections of the implants after in vivo tests were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate the bone–implant interface and the early peri-implant biomineralization with sufficiently improved resolution. Two bone mineralization mechanisms were disclosed. As early as two weeks after implantation, a layer of new bone was found to form directly on the implant surface and bone in-growth was also observed. Osseointegration was found to establish partly at the tip of the implants. After healing for four weeks it was found that osseointegration was established around the entire tip of the implants, whereas only partly at the third thread region of the implants. The experimental evidences observed reveal that an inherent highly porous surface of the titanium implants generated by selective laser melting is favorable for new bone apposition.

Keyword [en]
Biomineralization, Selective laser melting (SLM), Bone–implant interface, Osseointegration
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-120277DOI: 10.1016/j.jmat.2015.07.008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-120277DiVA: diva2:851369
Available from: 2015-09-04 Created: 2015-09-04 Last updated: 2015-09-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The synergistic role of hierarchical macro- and mesoporous implant surface and microscopic view of enhanced osseointegration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The synergistic role of hierarchical macro- and mesoporous implant surface and microscopic view of enhanced osseointegration
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The trend for designing of a titanium implant explored using different chemical compositions and crystallinity materials until people realized that the implant surface character was another important factor affecting the rate and extent of osseointegartion. Titanium received a macroporous titania surface layer by anodization, which contains open pores with average pore diameter around 5μm. An additional mesoporous titania top layer was created that followed the contour of the macropores and having 100–200 nm thickness and a pore diameter of 10 nm. Thus, a coherent laminar titania surface layer was obtained producing a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface. The interfacial bonding between the surface layers and the titanium matrix was characterized by a scratch test that confirmed a stable and strong bonding of the laminar titania surface layers upon titanium. The wettability to water and the effects on the osteosarcoma cell line (SaOS-2) proliferation and mineralization of the formed titania surface layers were studied systematically by cell culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A synergistic role of the hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was revealed in terms of enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization, when compared with the titania surface with solo porosity scale topography.

For the in vivo results of the evaluation of osseointegration, an argon ion beam polishing technique was applied to prepare the cross sections of implants feasible for the high resolution SEM investigation. The interfacial microstructure between newly formed bone and implants with four modified surfaces including the new hierarchical macro- and mesoporous implant surface retrieved after in vivo tests were characterized. By this approach it has become possible to directly observe early bone formation, the increase of bone density, and the evolution of bone structure. The two bone growth mechanisms, distant osteogenesis and contact osteogenesis, can also be distinguished. These direct observations give, at microscopic level, a better view of osseointegration and explain the functional mechanisms of various implant surfaces for osseointegration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2015. 61 p.
Keyword
Porosity, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, surface topography, implant, bone-implant interface, argon ion beam polishing, osteogenesis, osseointegration
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-120584 (URN)978-91-7649-267-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-22, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: In press. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-09-30 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2015-09-15Bibliographically approved

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