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Analytical modelling of Internet provision and usage in context of development through a utility based framework
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Information and communication technology and development (ICTD) is a research area that has broadly captured the attention of the public and the academics in the last two decades. It deals with the interaction and the relations between the humans and the society in general on one side and the technology on the other side. The focus in this thesis is on the computing and communication technology, herein referred to as the “Internet – the IP based technology”, which is seen as one of the enablers for economic and social growth.

The benefit of the Internet connectivity and usage in inducing and enhancing positive social changes in basic dimensions of human life is generally accepted as one of the most important drivers for development. The success and the inevitability of the Internet in the developed world underline its proliferation and diffusion essential in less developed countries. However, sometimes these processes are being impaired by unintended and intended consequences created by the social dynamics that drives the current information technological innovations and evolutions, stakeholders’ desire of fulfilling one’s utility egos, all coupled with market environments.

This thesis takes an insight in both unintended and intended implications and their effects on enabling development in the environments where the Internet Protocol (IP) based infrastructures are limited like in Least Developing regions/countries.  The results of this insight study have led in;

a)      Establishing the basic Internet services that would trigger the exploitation of one’s potential for development.

This has been achieved through the use of analytical scientific methods to classify Internet traffic characteristics and derive the relevance levels of their corresponding Internet services groups in fostering development.

b)      Developing a framework that lays down structure guidelines to facilitate Decision Makers especially in least developed countries to make scientifically informed subjective judgements for Internet services in the context of development.

c)      Designing and developing of the Internet Services in the Context of Developing (ISCD) model that enables the alignment of the apparent divergent/misalignment objectives of Internet stakeholders in the present Internet structure to have their respective maximised intended benefits.

Empirical testing of the model led in setting strategic options for aligning stakeholders goals in view of the ISCD along two main domains (i) network management policies – that focuses on provisions of services, and (ii) Internet consumption/usage – that focus on services relevance, commensurability to specific requirements as pertains LDCs, and services delivery mechanism convergence to all-IP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2015. , 166 p.
Series
Report Series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 15-018
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122293ISBN: 978-91-7649-300-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-122293DiVA: diva2:865610
Public defence
2015-12-11, L50, NOD-huset, Borgarfjordsgatan 12, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript.

 

Available from: 2015-11-19 Created: 2015-10-28 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Group Decision Evaluation of Internet Services in the Context of Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group Decision Evaluation of Internet Services in the Context of Development
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The paper presents group decision assessment for the Internet services in the context of development (ISCD). The assessment is achieved through the use of a decision model whose fundamental goal is to provide a systematic approach for addressing the problem of misalignments among the Internet stakeholders’ objectives. The modelling of the problem is approached from the perspectives of delivering/receiving the Internet services that maximizes the respective stakeholders’ objectives. Based on the AHP theory, it structures the problem into four hierarchies with three aspects of consideration as (a) services relevance in context of development, (b) services delivery mechanism convergence to IP Infrastructure and (c) services commensurability to traffic classes’ requirements. An assessment of the aggregated individually derived final priorities (AIP) reveals that for aligning the stakeholders’ objectives at local level, end users should first strive to implement the Internet components/applications that can cause high impact to their transactions/business, followed by those services/applications that can “empower” them to fulfil their goals. While at global level, the affordability of recurring subscriptions for Internet access, end user terminal equipment cost, and coverage rage/penetration are the key issues that the policy makers should address in view of achieving the ISCD objectives. Finally the paper includes strategic options for the best course of action in aligning the stakeholders’ objectives.

Keyword
ISCD model, Internet, development, LDCs, strategies, AHP, decisions
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122402 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-30 Created: 2015-10-30 Last updated: 2015-10-30Bibliographically approved
2. The Decision Model for the Internet Services in the Context of Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Decision Model for the Internet Services in the Context of Development
2015 (English)In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 55, 622-631 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Internet Services in the Context of Development (ISCD) model is structured in four levels of hierarchy based on the Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP) theory. The model provides a formal approach of establishing the relative importance of Internet services in the context of fostering national development. This paper presents the fundamental conceptsof themodel. Pairwise Comparisons (PCs) technique the cornerstone of the AHP theory is used as the baseline technique for measuring the intensity of preference between the Internet traffic classes (therein their respective services they deliver to end users) in the process of formulating the judgment matrix. The ISCD model is modelled to process data obtained from a group of individual decision makers that are independent from each other. Hence decision makers are weighted in the process of aggregating their priority vectors and the normalized weighted geometric mean method (NWGMM) is used to compute the group's priority vector, which is the final output of the model.

Keyword
ISCD model, Internet, development, LDCs, strategies, AHP, decisions
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122275 (URN)10.1016/j.procs.2015.07.053 (DOI)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Information Technology and Quantitative Management, ITQM 2015
Available from: 2015-10-28 Created: 2015-10-28 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
3. A descriptive model for aligning the goals of the Internet stakeholders in LDCs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A descriptive model for aligning the goals of the Internet stakeholders in LDCs
2014 (English)In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 31, 900-909 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Internet as a platform for services provision and delivery is adopted world over. To least developed countries it is further perceived as a medium for fostering development. A perception that is likely not to be easily achieved because the decisions that led to its existence in such countries never addressed the need of aligning the stakeholders' goals which inherit the misalignments in present Internet architectural model. We present a model based on AHP theory that lays strategies through which informed decisions for aligning stakeholders' goals can be made to use the Internet as medium for enhancing national development initiatives.

Keyword
ISCD model, Internet, development, LDCs, strategies, AHP, decisions
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-110941 (URN)10.1016/j.procs.2014.05.342 (DOI)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Information Technology and Quantitative Management, ITQM 2014
Available from: 2014-12-19 Created: 2014-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. A Utility Based Approach for Internet Services in Context of Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Utility Based Approach for Internet Services in Context of Development
2012 (English)In: Information and Business Intelligence: IBI 2011. Proceedings Part I / [ed] Xilong Qu, Yuhang Yang, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 267, 164-171 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We outline basic characteristics of what would be the environment of the Internet services in view of fostering development in a poor nation. This study is based on the Internet state of art marketing in most developing nations. Also on the foundation of the utility theory and the fairness concept, network services provision is characterized to maximize the user’s satisfaction through a utility-fair resource allocation criterion. Then the utility values are used as performance measure of the service delivery to end-users. The end-user is characterize by a mapping of the utility value to actual benefits that foster a positive social change in one’s basic dimensions of life. We study this mapping using the leisure-labour model as it endeavours to explain why people seek some equity in the ability to access the Internet as a means of increasing ones’ happiness, to save money and time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012
Series
Information and Business Intelligence Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929 ; 267
Keyword
Internet services, Utility functions, service classes
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-86332 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-29084-8_25 (DOI)978-3-642-29083-1 (ISBN)978-3-642-29084-8 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference, IBI 2011, Chongqing, China, December 23-25, 2011
Available from: 2013-01-12 Created: 2013-01-12 Last updated: 2015-10-30Bibliographically approved
5. A Social Welfare Approach in Increasing the Benefits from the Internet in Developing Countries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Social Welfare Approach in Increasing the Benefits from the Internet in Developing Countries
2011 (English)In: International Journal on Network Security, ISSN 2152-5064, Vol. 2, no 4, 29-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper examines the Internet usage and itsmarket environment in developing countries under theperceived assumption that the Internet is one of the mostimportant drivers for development. It gives an insight onprocesses’ (both unintended and intended) implications andtheir effects on achieving real Internet benefits in theenvironments where network infrastructures are limited suchas the ones found in the developing regions. A welfare basedapproach is proposed in which the Internet providers and endusersidentify a set of objective that leads them in achievingincreased benefits. Analytical model of the maincharacteristics in the approach is presented and eventuallyshown how the end user bit rate could be regulated based onthe utility bounds that lead general satisfaction to all users.User satisfaction signifies delivery of expected QoS and aswell as willing to pay for such services.

Keyword
welfare, benefits, fairness, Internet, user satisfaction, social-economic progress
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122277 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-28 Created: 2015-10-28 Last updated: 2015-11-11Bibliographically approved
6. A Utility Based Framework for Internet Access Provision and Usage in Context of Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Utility Based Framework for Internet Access Provision and Usage in Context of Development
2011 (English)In: 2011 International Conference on Future Information Technology IPCSIT: Vol. 13, Singapore: IACSIT Press , 2011, 86-90 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We outline basic characteristics of what would be the environment of the Internet services in view of fostering development in a poor nation. This study is based on the Internet state of art marketing in most developing nations. Also on the foundation of the utility theory and the fairness concept, network services provision is characterized to maximize the user’s satisfaction through a utility-fair resource allocation criterion. Then the utility values are used as performance measure of the service delivery to end-users. The end-user is characterize by a mapping of the utility value to actual benefits that foster a positive social change in one’s basic dimensions of life. We study this mapping using the leisure-labour model as it endeavours to explain why people seek some equity in the ability to access the Internet as a means of increasing ones’ happiness, to save money and time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: IACSIT Press, 2011
Keyword
Utility, development, fairness, user, satisfaction, benefits, Internet, Social-economic progress, welfare
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-67094 (URN)
Conference
2011 International Conference on Future Information Technology, IPCSIT, Singapore
Available from: 2011-12-26 Created: 2011-12-26 Last updated: 2015-10-30Bibliographically approved
7. A Framework for Achieving Optimal Benefits from the Internet in the Context of Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Achieving Optimal Benefits from the Internet in the Context of Development
2011 (English)In: 2011 RoEduNet International Conference 10th Edition: Networking in Education and Research, 2011, 1-7 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The framework gives the characteristics of what would be the environment of the Internet services provision and usage in view of fostering development in a poor nation. It depicts the current Internet market state of art in most developing nations. Building on the domain of utility theory and the concept of fairness, the characteristics of the network services provision are set to maximize the users satisfaction through a utility fair function that unifies/equalizes the utilities of all users for a given traffic case. The utility value gained from the providers' utility equalization is used as a performance measure of the service delivery to the end-user. The framework strives to characterize the end-users by mapping the utility value to actual benefits that foster a positive social change in one's basic dimensions of life. This mapping is based on the leisure-labour theory that endeavours to explain why people seek some equity in the ability to access the Internet.

Keyword
Internet penetration, optimal benefits, fairness, development
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-67089 (URN)10.1109/RoEduNet.2011.5993709 (DOI)978-1-4577-1233-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Roedunet International Conference (RoEduNet), 23-25 June 2011
Available from: 2011-12-26 Created: 2011-12-26 Last updated: 2015-10-30Bibliographically approved
8. A Framework for Evaluating Efficiency – Fairness Tradeoffs in IP Networks in Context of Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Evaluating Efficiency – Fairness Tradeoffs in IP Networks in Context of Development
2009 (English)In: 9th International Symposium on Communications and Information Technology (ISCIT 2009): Proceedings, IEEE Computer Society, 2009, 507-512 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Efficiency and fairness are main objectives in any system design and many choices in life are made based on their tradeoffs. In this paper we introduce a framework for the evaluation of efficiency-fairness tradeoffs that would provide a sound basis for network providers and social planners to provide or plan for an equitable access to the Internet to a diversity of users with different needs and financial possibilities representing mainly developing regions and emerging economies. Control approaches are introduced to address the upraising distortion of fairness concept in IP based networks by using the (alpha, beta) - fairness concept to establish the upper and lower fairness bounds within which the social welfare and the network efficiency are maximized. Although the use of the (alpha, beta) - fairness concept compromises to a certain extent the degree for fairness in resource capacity allocation, it does not jeopardize the utilities for end users or the network provider. Fairness in this context mainly parameterizes tradeoff between services equality and throughput maximization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2009
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-33348 (URN)10.1109/ISCIT.2009.5341196 (DOI)978-1-4244-4521-9 (ISBN)978-1-4244-4522-6 (ISBN)
Conference
ISCIT 28-30 September 2009
Available from: 2009-12-23 Created: 2009-12-23 Last updated: 2015-10-30Bibliographically approved
9. Towards a framework for evaluating Efficiency - Fairness Tradeoffs on the Internet in Development Context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a framework for evaluating Efficiency - Fairness Tradeoffs on the Internet in Development Context
2008 (English)In: International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies (ISCIT 2008), IEEE Computer Society, 2008, 551-556 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Efficiency and fairness are main objectives in any system design and many choices in life are made based on their tradeoffs. This paper investigates the current trends in understanding and applying the fairness concept on the Internet. Then it studies and examines the extension of the fairness concept in the context of development and developing regions, where both the traditional lack of infrastructure and costly communication services have also affected the penetration of the Internet and more even distribution of its benefits. The key question is whether or not it is plausible to identify a framework for the evaluation of efficiency-fairness tradeoffs that may provide a sound basis for a model of a more equitable access to the Internet to a diversity of users with different needs and financial possibilities representing mainly developing regions and emerging economies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2008
Keyword
IP networks, Internet, resource allocation
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122284 (URN)10.1109/ISCIT.2008.4700253 (DOI)978-1-4244-2335-4 (ISBN)978-1-4244-2336-1 (ISBN)
Conference
ISCIT 21-23 October 2008
Available from: 2015-10-28 Created: 2015-10-28 Last updated: 2015-10-30Bibliographically approved
10. Fairness on the Internet and its Importance in Development Context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fairness on the Internet and its Importance in Development Context
2008 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The notion of fairness with respect to resource sharing among the competing flows is one of the important considerations in network design. This is true in particular for IP networks (which are the foundation of the Internet), where the service model is based on best effort and any possible distortion of it may lead to flow starvation and eventually system imbalances. In fact, fairness should be one of the major objectives both on a network layer and transport layer. This is evident in the case of elastic flows such as TCP, where fairness may have a major impact on congestion resolution. On a network layer, fairness mechanisms combined with scheduling and queuing policies lead to equitable service, which may also induce higher router utilization and hence better network performance. The paper investigates the current trends in understanding and applying the fairness concept on the Internet and hence in heterogeneous networks. Then it studies and examines the extension of the fairness concept in the context of development and developing regions, where both the traditional lack of infrastructure and costly communication services have also affected the penetration of the Internet and more even distribution of its benefits. The key question is whether or not it is plausible to identify a framework for the evaluation of efficiently-fairness tradeoffs that may provide a sound basis for a model of a more equitable access to the Internet to a diversity of users with different needs and financial possibilities representing mainly developing regions and emerging economies.

Keyword
Fairness, efficiency, Internet, resource sharing, hetrogenous networks
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122291 (URN)978-953-6071-04-3 (ISBN)
Conference
19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems
Available from: 2015-10-28 Created: 2015-10-28 Last updated: 2015-11-11Bibliographically approved
11. The Level of Scientific Methods Use in Computing Research Programs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Level of Scientific Methods Use in Computing Research Programs
2008 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The research investigates the level to whichscientists’ use scientific methods in computing researchprograms. Data was collected from a representative sample ofresearchers in the field. The findings show that the presentresearch programs are more driven by the market forces.Innovations come up as a consequence of satisfying themarket calls but not necessarily a result of advancement inbasic science. Researchers’ investigations are driven by threecharacteristics; proof of performance, concept and existence.Also noted from the study, some researchers lack a cleardistinction between the methods. They tend to mix methods intheir research programs as longer as the industry acceptstheir outcome artifact. Consequently, there is lack of a clearcurriculum to instill such methodological concepts at graduatelevel in some of the computing schools.

Keyword
Scientific methods, computing, methodologies, artifact, computer science
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122292 (URN)978-953-233-039-7 (ISBN)
Conference
31st International Convention on Information and Communication Technology
Available from: 2015-10-28 Created: 2015-10-28 Last updated: 2015-11-11Bibliographically approved

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