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A Cost-Effective Laser Scanning Method for Mapping Stream Channel Geometry and Roughness
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
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Number of Authors: 5
2015 (English)In: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, ISSN 1093-474X, E-ISSN 1752-1688, Vol. 51, no 5, 1211-1220 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This brief pilot study implements a camera-based laser scanning system that potentially offers a viable, cost-effective alternative to traditional terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and LiDAR equipment. We adapted a low-cost laser ranging system (SICK LSM111) to acquire area scans of the channel and bed for a temporarily diverted stream. The 5mx2m study area was scanned at a 4mm point spacing which resulted in a point cloud density of 5,600 points/m(2). A local maxima search algorithm was applied to the point cloud and a grain size distribution of the stream bed was extracted. The 84th and 90th percentiles of this distribution, which are commonly used to characterize channel roughness, were 90mm and 109mm, respectively. Our example shows the system can resolve both large-scale geometry (e.g., bed slope and channel width) and small-scale roughness elements (e.g., grain sizes between about 30 and 255mm) in an exposed stream channel thereby providing a resolution adequate for the estimation of ecohydraulic roughness parameters such as Manning's n. While more work is necessary to refine our specific field-deployable system's design, these initial results are promising in particular for those working on a limited or fixed budget. This opens up a realm of laser scanning applications and monitoring strategies for water resources that may not have been possible previously due to cost limitations associated with traditional TLS systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 51, no 5, 1211-1220 p.
Keyword [en]
laser scanning, stream channels, river bed roughness, ecohydraulics, Manning's n
National Category
Environmental Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122756DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12299ISI: 000362369900005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-122756DiVA: diva2:871705
Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modeling rating curves from close-range remote sensing data: Application of laser and acoustic ranging instruments for capturing stream channel topography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling rating curves from close-range remote sensing data: Application of laser and acoustic ranging instruments for capturing stream channel topography
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A rating curve provides a functional relationship between water height (i.e. stage) and discharge at a specified cross-section in a river. Used in combination with a time series of stage, rating curves become one of the central components for generating continuous records of streamflow. Since developing and maintaining rating curves can be time consuming, hydraulic models have shown potential to reduce the effort required for developing rating curves. A central challenge with modeling procedures, however, is the acquisition of accurate stream channel and floodplain topography. From this perspective, this thesis focuses on the real-world application of close-range remote sensing techniques such as laser-based ranging technologies (i.e. Light detection and ranging or LiDAR) or acoustic based ranging technologies (i.e. acoustic Doppler current profiler or ADCP) to capture topographic information for hydraulic modeling applications across various spatial scales. First, a review of the current LiDAR literature was carried out to identify potential ways to take full advantage of these novel data and technologies in the future. This was followed by four interconnected studies whereby: (i) a low-cost custom laser scanning system was designed to capture grain size distributions for a small stream; (ii) synthetically thinned airborne laser scanning (ALS) data was applied in a physically-based hydraulic modelling framework to develop rating curves; (iii) low-resolution national-scale ALS was coupled with ADCP bathymetry to be used in conjunction with a hydraulic model to develop rating curves; and (iv) the impact of measurement uncertainties on generating rating curves with a hydraulic model were investigated. This thesis highlights the potential of close-range remote sensing techniques for capturing accurate stream channel topography and derive from these data, the necessary parameters required for hydraulic modeling applications.

Abstract [sv]

En avbördningskurva tillhandahåller ett funktionellt förhållande mellan vattendjup (dvs. vattenstånd) och flöde vid ett specifikt tvärsnitt i ett vattendrag. Avbördningskurvan blir en central komponent för generering av kontinuerliga tidsserier av vattenföring från tidsserier av vattenstånd. Eftersom det är tidskrävande att utveckla och underhålla avbördningskurvor erbjuder hydrauliska modeller attraktiva möjligheter att minska den insats som krävs för att utveckla avbördningskurvorna. En central utmaning för sådana modelleringsförfaranden är emellertid tillgången till noggrann topografidata av strömfåran och de omgivande stränderna. Den här avhandlingen fokuserar på tillämpningen av fjärranalystekniker för avståndsmätning på nära håll, såsom laserbaserade teknik (dvs. Light detection and ranging eller LiDAR) och akustisk baserat teknik (dvs. acoustic Doppler current profiler eller ADCP), för att fånga topografisk information för hydraulisk modellering av vattendrag i olika rumsliga skalor. Först presenteras en litteraturstudie av den nuvarande LiDAR-litteratur för att identifiera potentiella sätt att dra full nytta av dessa nya data och tekniker i framtiden. Detta följs av fyra sammanlänkade studier: (i) tillämpning av ett lågkostnads-laseravsökningssystem för att fånga kornstorleksfördelningar i ett litet vattendrag, (ii) syntetiskt förtunnad flygburen laserskanningsdata (ALS) applicerad i en fysiskt baserad hydraulisk modell för att utveckla avbördningskurvor, (iii) lågupplösta ALS från Svensk nationell höjdmodell kopplade med ADCP-batymetri för att ta fram en avbördningskurva med en hydraulisk modell, och (iv) undersökning av effekterna av osäkerheter på mätdata för att generera avbördningskurvor med en hydraulisk modell. Denna avhandling belyser potentialen för fjärranalystekniker för avståndsmätning på nära håll, för att fånga strömfårans exakta topografi och ifrån dessa data härleda de parametrar som krävs för hydrauliska modelleringstillämpningar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
US-AB, 2017. 42 p.
Series
Dissertations from the Department of Physical Geography, ISSN 1653-7211
Keyword
laser scanning, acoustic Doppler current profiler, hydraulic modeling, rating curves, Sweden
National Category
Physical Geography
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142135 (URN)978-91-7649-719-7 (ISBN)978-91-7649-720-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-15, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2011-4390Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-321
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2017-05-22Bibliographically approved

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