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An empirically derived inorganic sea spray source function incorporating sea surface temperature
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway; Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
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Number of Authors: 8
2015 (English)In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 15, no 19, 11047-11066 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have developed an inorganic sea spray source function that is based upon state-of-the-art measurements of sea spray aerosol production using a temperature-controlled plunging jet sea spray aerosol chamber. The size-resolved particle production was measured between 0.01 and 10 mu m dry diameter. Particle production decreased non-linearly with increasing seawater temperature (between -1 and 30 degrees C) similar to previous findings. In addition, we observed that the particle effective radius, as well as the particle surface, particle volume and particle mass, increased with increasing seawater temperature due to increased production of particles with dry diameters greater than 1 mu m. By combining these measurements with the volume of air entrained by the plunging jet we have determined the size-resolved particle flux as a function of air entrainment. Through the use of existing parameterisations of air entrainment as a function of wind speed, we were subsequently able to scale our laboratory measurements of particle production to wind speed. By scaling in this way we avoid some of the difficulties associated with defining the white area of the laboratory whitecap - a contentious issue when relating laboratory measurements of particle production to oceanic whitecaps using the more frequently applied whitecap method. The here-derived inorganic sea spray source function was implemented in a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART - FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model). An estimated annual global flux of inorganic sea spray aerosol of 5.9 +/- 0.2 Pg yr(-1) was derived that is close to the median of estimates from the same model using a wide range of existing sea spray source functions. When using the source function derived here, the model also showed good skill in predicting measurements of Na+ concentration at a number of field sites further underlining the validity of our source function. In a final step, the sensitivity of a large-scale model (NorESM - the Norwegian Earth System Model) to our new source function was tested. Compared to the previously implemented parameterisation, a clear decrease of sea spray aerosol number flux and increase in aerosol residence time was observed, especially over the Southern Ocean. At the same time an increase in aerosol optical depth due to an increase in the number of particles with optically relevant sizes was found. That there were noticeable regional differences may have important implications for aerosol optical properties and number concentrations, subsequently also affecting the indirect radiative forcing by non-sea spray anthropogenic aerosols.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 15, no 19, 11047-11066 p.
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-123198DOI: 10.5194/acp-15-11047-2015ISI: 000362971000009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-123198DiVA: diva2:872407
Available from: 2015-11-18 Created: 2015-11-18 Last updated: 2017-02-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Quantification of sources and removal mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol particles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of sources and removal mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol particles
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this work has been to quantify important processes for climatically relevant aerosols, and to improve our understanding of, and ability to accurately model, aerosols in the atmosphere on a large scale. This thesis contains five papers focused on different parts of the life cycle of atmospheric aerosol particles. Two papers describe the physical process of emission of primary marine aerosols. The large uncertainties in these processes are demonstrated by examining the diversity of existing parameterizations for emissions. Building from laboratory experiments to validation of model results with observations, new parameterizations are suggested. These take into account also effects of water temperature on primary marine aerosol production. In the third paper the main focus was to develop a new aerosol wet removal scheme in the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART. Removal timescales and atmospheric concentrations are found to be close to observation based estimates. The final two papers focus on atmospheric black carbon aerosols at high latitudes. As an example of increased human activities in the Arctic, local emissions from cruise ships visiting the research base in Ny Ålesund had demonstrable effects on the level of pollutants measured there. In contrast, inland Antarctic air was shown to be clean compared to the Arctic, due to the extremely long transport time from any major aerosol sources. The work done in this thesis has addressed critical uncertainties regarding the aerosol lifecycle, by better constraining aerosol emissions and atmospheric lifetimes. The development of the new wet removal scheme has improved FLEXPART model accuracy, which will be beneficial in future applications of the model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2017. 54 p.
Keyword
aerosol, aerosol removal, aerosol emission, aerosol sources, FLEXPART, Arctic aerosol
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-138903 (URN)978-91-7649-669-5 (ISBN)978-91-7649-670-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-03-17, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-01-30 Last updated: 2017-02-16Bibliographically approved

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