Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Regional brain shrinkage and change in cognitive performance over two years: The bidirectional influences of the brain and cognitive reserve factors
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9411-812X
Show others and affiliations
2016 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 126, 15-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We examined relationships between regional brain shrinkage and changes in cognitive performance, while taking into account the influence of age, vascular risk, Apolipoprotein E variant and socioeconomic status. Regional brain volumes and cognitive performance were assessed in 167 healthy adults (age 19-79 at baseline), 90 of whom returned for the follow-up after two years. Brain volumes were measured in six regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC), and cognitive performance was evaluated in three domains: episodic memory (EM), fluid intelligence (Gf), and vocabulary (V). Average volume loss was observed in Hc, PhG and CbH, but reliable individual differences were noted in all examined ROIs. Average positive change was observed in EM and V performance but not in Gf scores, yet only the last evidenced individual differences in change. We observed reciprocal influences among neuroanatomical and cognitive variables. Larger brain volumes at baseline predicted greater individual gains in Gf, but differences in LPFC volume change were in part explained by baseline level of cognitive performance. In one region (PFw), individual change in volume was coupled with change in Gf. Larger initial brain volumes did not predict slower shrinkage. The results underscore the complex role of brain maintenance and cognitive reserve in adult development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 126, 15-26 p.
Keyword [en]
Fluid abilities, Longitudinal, MRI, Memory, Prefrontal cortex, Volume, White matter
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-123702DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.11.028ISI: 000369289800002PubMedID: 26584866OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-123702DiVA: diva2:875969
Available from: 2015-12-02 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2016-06-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The aging brain and changes in cognitive performance: Findings from morphometry and quantitative susceptibility mapping of iron
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The aging brain and changes in cognitive performance: Findings from morphometry and quantitative susceptibility mapping of iron
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brain aging is a heterogeneous phenomenon, and this thesis illustrates how the course of aging can vary within individuals over time and between individuals as a function of age, sex, and genetic variability. We used two contrasts from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), namely spin-lattice T1-weighted imaging, and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) from gradient-echo images, to picture the aging brain, by means of morphometric measures and brain-iron concentrations. Within each study, the same rigorous imaging acquisitioning protocols were used over large samples sizes of 167-183 individuals, which contribute to the uniqueness of the studies. Most of the current knowledge about the aging brain rests on the foundation of cross-sectional age-related differences, and studies I and III contribute to current knowledge with longitudinal designs to investigate individual rates of change. The importance of genetic variation in relation to regional brain changes was addressed with a specific emphasis on functional polymorphisms involved in pro-inflammatory responses. These studies further shed light on the importance of bi-directional relations between structural integrity and maintained cognitive abilities over time. Study II is the largest study to date to have quantitative susceptibility estimates examined in healthy adults, and the first in-vivo report to show a lowering in overall subcortical brain iron estimates in women from midlife to old age. Studies I and III are unique by examining longitudinal differences in anatomical brain regions using high resolution images from a 4 Tesla scanner. Peripheral vascular risk factors were not strong determinants of either brain- or cognitive changes in the studied samples. The results are discussed in the context of cognitive reserve, the brain maintenance hypothesis, and potential influences of hormones, inflammation and oxidative stress.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Psychology, Stokholm University, 2015. 105 p.
Keyword
brain aging, volumes, ndividual differences, QSM, cognitive aging, iron, episodic memory, fluid-, crystalized abilities, sex differences, gender differences
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-123699 (URN)978-91-7649-295-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-15, David Magnussonsalen (U31), Frescati Hagväg 8, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-12-21 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2016-01-18Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Persson, Ninni
By organisation
Biological psychology
In the same journal
NeuroImage
Psychology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 139 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link