Composition-dependent in vitro apatite formation at mesoporous bioactive glass-surfaces quantified by solid-state NMR and powder XRD
Number of Authors: 8
2015 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, no 105, 86061-86071 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Silicate-based bioactive glasses exhibit bone-bonding properties due to the formation of a hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) layer at the glass surface on its contact with living tissues. This bone-healing process is triggered by ionic exchange between the glass and the surrounding fluids and thereby depends on the glass composition. In this work, the HCA formation from three mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) of different compositions immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) was monitored for variable time intervals between 15 minutes to 30 days. By utilizing two independent assessment techniques, solid-state P-31 NMR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), we report the first quantitative assessment of the HCA growth (i.e., in vitro bioactivity) from a bioactive glass: both techniques allow for monitoring the crystallization of the amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) precursor into HCA, i.e., a profile of the relative ACP/HCA fractions of the biomimetic phosphate layer formed at each MBG surface and SBF-exposure period. The amount of HCA present in each solid specimen after the SBF treatment, as well as the composition of the remaining cation-depleted MBG phase, was determined from PXRD data in conjunction with measured concentrations of Ca, Si, and P in the solution. In contrast with previous findings from in vitro bioactivity assessments of the same MBG compositions, the HCA formation is herein observed to increase concurrently with the Ca and P contents of the MBG; these apparently different composition-bioactivity observations stem from a significantly lower MBG-loading in the SBF solution utilized herein. The results are discussed in relation to the general task of performing bioactivity testing in SBF, where we highlight the importance of adapting the concentration of the biomaterial to its composition to avoid perturbing the HCA crystallization and thereby altering the outcome of the test.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 5, no 105, 86061-86071 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-123741DOI: 10.1039/c5ra13410bISI: 000363179500011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-123741DiVA: diva2:876555