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Numerical modeling of groundwater and air flow between compacted bentonite and fractured crystalline rock
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. (HWP)
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The geological repository for final storage of spent nuclear fuel, envisioned by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Management Company (SKB), relies on several barriers: copper canisters deposited in holes in the floor of underground tunnels in deep bedrock, embedded in a buffer of compacted bentonite. The initially unsaturated buffer would take up water from the surrounding rock mass and swell to seal any potential gap. This initial two-phase (gas and liquid) regime with two components (air and water) may impact the final density, swelling pressure and biogeochemical conditions in the buffer. A main objective of this work is to identify factors and mechanisms that govern deposition hole inflow and bentonite wetting under the prevailing two-phase flow conditions in sparsely fractured bedrock. For this purpose, we use the numerical code TOUGH2 to perform two-phase flow simulations, conditioned by a companion field experiment (the Bentonite Rock Interaction Experiment or BRIE) performed in a 417 m deep tunnel of the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in southeastern Sweden. The models predict a significant de-saturation of the rock wall, which was confirmed by field data. To predict the early buffer wetting rates and patterns, the position of local flowing fractures and estimates of local rock matrix permeability appear more important than the total open hole groundwater inflow. A global sensitivity analysis showed that the buffer wetting time and the persistence of unsaturated conditions over extended periods of time in the rock depend primarily on the local fracture positions, rock matrix permeability, ventilation conditions in the tunnel and pressure far in the rock. Dismantling photographs from BRIE were used to reconstruct a fine-scale snapshot of saturation at the bentonite/rock interface, showing tremendous spatial variability. The high level of heterogeneity in the rock generates complex two-phase flow phenomena (air trapping, dissolution), which need to be accounted for in buffer design and rock suitability criteria. In particular, results suggest that uncertainties regarding two-phase flow behavior are relatively high close to residual air saturation, which may also have important implications for other applications involving two-phase flows, such as geological storage of carbon dioxide.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm Univeristy , 2016. , 35 p.
Series
Dissertations from the Department of Physical Geography, ISSN 1653-7211 ; 52
Keyword [en]
Two-phase flow, porous media, fractured media, compacted bentonite, crystalline rock, numerical modeling, geological disposal
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-124428ISBN: 978-91-7649-294-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-124428DiVA: diva2:890589
Public defence
2016-02-25, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2017-07-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Impact of near-wall rock characteristics on bentonite buffer wetting: In situ study of nuclear fuel deposition holes in deep bedrock
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of near-wall rock characteristics on bentonite buffer wetting: In situ study of nuclear fuel deposition holes in deep bedrock
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-124049 (URN)
Available from: 2015-12-21 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2016-01-04Bibliographically approved
2. MODELING TWO-PHASE-FLOW INTERACTIONS ACROSS A BENTONITE CLAY AND FRACTURED ROCK INTERFACE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MODELING TWO-PHASE-FLOW INTERACTIONS ACROSS A BENTONITE CLAY AND FRACTURED ROCK INTERFACE
2014 (English)In: Nuclear Technology, ISSN 0029-5450, E-ISSN 1943-7471, Vol. 187, no 2, 147-157 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Deep geological repositories are generally considered as suitable environments for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In the Swedish and Finnish repository design concept, canisters are to be placed in deep underground tunnels in sparsely fractured crystalline bedrock, in deposition holes in which each canister is embedded with an expansive bentonite-clay-mixture buffer. A set of semigeneric two-dimensional radially symmetric TOUGH2 simulations are conducted to investigate the multiphase dynamics and interactions between water and air in a bentonite-rock environment. The main objective is to identify how sensitive saturation times of bentonite are to the geometry of the rock fractures and to commonly adopted simplifications in the unsaturated flow description such as Richards assumptions. Results show that the location of the intersection between the fracture system and the deposition hole is a key factor affecting saturation times. A potential long-lasting desaturation of the rock matrix close to the bentonite-rock interface is also identified extending up to 10 cm inside the rock. Two-phase-flow models predict systematically longer saturation times compared to a simplified Richards approximation, which is frequently used to represent unsaturated flows. The discrepancy diverges considerably as full saturation is approached.

Keyword
multiphase flow, fractured rock, bentonite clay
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107122 (URN)000340311600004 ()
Note

AuthorCount:3;

Available from: 2014-09-03 Created: 2014-09-03 Last updated: 2017-07-28Bibliographically approved
3. A global sensitivity analysis of two-phase flow between fractured crystalline rock and bentonite with application to spent nuclear fuel disposal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A global sensitivity analysis of two-phase flow between fractured crystalline rock and bentonite with application to spent nuclear fuel disposal
2015 (English)In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 182, 25-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep crystalline rock is investigated as a possible long term solution in Sweden and Finland. The fuel rods would be cased in copper canisters and deposited in vertical holes in the floor of deep underground tunnels, embedded within an engineered bentonite buffer. Recent experiments at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden) showed that the high suction of unsaturated bentonite causes a de-saturation of the adjacent rock at the time of installation, which was also independently predicted in model experiments. Remaining air can affect the flow patterns and alter bio-geochemical conditions, influencing for instance the transport of radionuclides in the case of canister failure. However, thus far, observations and model realizations are limited in number and do not capture the conceivable range and combination of parameter values and boundary conditions that are relevant for the thousands of deposition holes envisioned in an operational final repository.

In order to decrease this knowledge gap, we introduce here a formalized, systematic and fully integrated approach to study the combined impact of multiple factors on air saturation and dissolution predictions, investigating the impact of variability in parameter values, geometry and boundary conditions on bentonite buffer saturation times and on occurrences of rock de-saturation. Results showed that four parameters consistently appear in the top six influential factors for all considered output (target) variables: the position of the fracture intersecting the deposition hole, the background rock permeability, the suction representing the relative humidity in the open tunnel and the far field pressure value. The combined influence of these compared to the other parameters increases as one targets a larger fraction of the buffer reaching near-saturation. Strong interaction effects were found, which means that some parameter combinations yielded results (e.g., time to saturation) far outside the range of results obtained by the rest of the scenarios. This study also addresses potential air trapping by dissolution of part of the initial air content of the bentonite, showing that neglecting gas flow effects and trapping could lead to significant underestimation of the remaining air content and the duration of the initial aerobic phase of the repository.

Keyword
Bentonite, Fractured rock, Two-phase flow, Morris OAT method
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-124043 (URN)10.1016/j.jconhyd.2015.07.006 (DOI)000365376900003 ()
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
4. Reconstruction of the water content at an interface between compacted bentonite blocks and fractured crystalline bedrock
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconstruction of the water content at an interface between compacted bentonite blocks and fractured crystalline bedrock
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 142, 145-152 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-density sodium bentonite combines a low permeability with a swelling behavior, which constitute two important qualities for engineered barriers in geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. For example, the KBS-3V method developed in Sweden and Finland is planned to include compacted bentonite as the buffer material to embed canisters containing the spent nuclear fuel packages in deposition holes in deep crystalline bedrock. The partially saturated bentonite buffer will then swell as it takes up groundwater from the surrounding rock. It is important to quantify the water content evolution of the installed buffer to correctly predict the development of the swelling pressure and the prevailing conditions (thermal, mechanical, chemical and biological). This study aimed at quantifying the water content profile at the surface of a cylindrical bentonite parcel retrieved after in situ wetting in fractured crystalline bedrock. We demonstrate the possibility of using regression-kriging to quantitatively include spatial information from high-resolution photographs of the retrieved bentonite parcel, where more water saturated areas appear as relatively dark shades, along with bentonite samples, where detailed measurements of water content were performed. The resulting reconstruction is both exact regarding local sample measurements and successful to reproduce features such as intersecting rock fracture traces, visible in the photographs. This level of detail is a key step to gain a deeper understanding of the hydraulic behavior of compacted bentonite barriers in sparsely fractured rock. An improved scanning procedure could further increase the accuracy by reducing errors introduced by the geometrical transformations needed to unfold and stitch the different photographs into a single gray scale map of the bentonite surface. The application of this technique could provide more insights to ongoing and planned experiments with unsaturated bentonite buffers.

Keyword
Engineered barrier system, Bentonite, Fractured rock, Regression-kriging, Unsaturated flow
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-145212 (URN)10.1016/j.clay.2016.10.002 (DOI)000405048000016 ()
Available from: 2017-07-28 Created: 2017-07-28 Last updated: 2017-07-28Bibliographically approved

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