Estimating emissions of PFOS and PFOA to the Danube River catchment and evaluating them using a catchment-scale chemical transport and fate model
Number of Authors: 3
2015 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 207, 97-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Novel approaches for estimating the emissions of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to surface waters are explored. The Danube River catchment is used to investigate emissions contributing to riverine loads of PFOS and PFOA and to verify the accuracy of estimates using a catchment-scale dynamic fugacity-based chemical transport and fate model (STREAM-EU; Spatially and Temporally Resolved Exposure Assessment Model for European basins). Model accuracy evaluation performed by comparing STREAM-EU predicted concentrations and monitoring data for the Danube and its tributaries shows that the best estimates for PFOS and PFOA emissions in the Danube region are obtained by considering the combined contributions of human population, wealth (based on local gross domestic product (GDP)) and wastewater treatment. Human population alone cannot explain the levels of PFOS and PFOA found in the Danube catchment waters. Introducing wealth distribution information in the form of local GDPs improves emission estimates markedly, likely by better representing emissions resulting from consumer trends, industrial and commercial sources. For compounds such as PFOS and PFOA, whose main sink and transport media is the aquatic compartment, a major source to freshwater are wastewater treatment plants. Introducing wastewater treatment information in the emission estimations also further improves emission estimates.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 207, 97-106 p.
PFOS, PFOA, Modelling, Emissions estimation, Danube basin
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-125794DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.08.050ISI: 000366617500011PubMedID: 26367703OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-125794DiVA: diva2:897138