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What is the effect of phasing out long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in the environment? A systematic review protocol
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
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2015 (English)In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 4, 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

There is a growing concern in Sweden and elsewhere that continued emissions of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may cause environmental as well as human health effects. PFASs are a broad class of man-made substances that have been produced and used in both commercial products and industrial processes for more than 60 years. Although the production and use of some PFASs has been phased-out in some parts of the world, it is not known what effect these actions to date have had on PFAS concentrations in the environment. Owing to the wide diversity of PFASs, it is difficult to generalize their properties, environmental fate and production histories. However, the strength and stability of the C-F bond renders the perfluoroalkyl moieties resistant to heat and environmental degradation. Several PFASs are now occurring even in very remote areas in large parts of the world, but the environmental transport and fate of substances within this group is not well understood. A systematic review may be able to determine whether the concentrations of these substances in different environments are changing in any particular direction with time, and whether the phase-outs have had any effects on the concentration trends.

Methods

Searches for primary research studies reporting on temporal variations of PFAS concentrations in the environment will be performed in the scientific literature as well as in other reports. Relevant samples include both abiotic and biological samples including humans. No particular time, document type, language or geographical constraints will be applied. Two authors will screen all retrieved articles. Double screening of about 10% of the articles will be performed by all authors at both title/abstract and full-text levels. Kappa tests will be used to test if the screening is consistent. Relevant articles will be critically appraised by four authors (double checking of 25% of the articles). Quality assessment will focus on selection bias, dating of samples, sample integrity and analytical procedures. Data synthesis will be based on statistical analysis of temporal concentration trends.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 4, 3
Keyword [en]
Perfluoroalkyl acids, Perfluoroalkane acids, PFOA, PFOS, Temporal trends, Phase-out, Source, Emission, Environmental fate, Regulation, Concentration
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126474DOI: 10.1186/2047-2382-4-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-126474DiVA: diva2:900095
Available from: 2016-02-03 Created: 2016-02-03 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved

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de Wit, Cynthia A.Cousins, Ian T.Johansson, Jana
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