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Candidate genes for resistance and susceptibility to the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is an important pest on spring-sown cereals. The aphid reduces yield and can act as a vector of barley yellow dwarf virus. R. padi does not give visible symptoms, but heavy infestation can reduce the yield substantially. R. padi is one of the most important pests of barley, which has the fourth rank among the cereals in global production. In order to overcome this problem, the plants are treated with pesticides. However, some of the pesticides are no longer permitted to use due to their negative environmental effects. Another problem is that the aphids develop resistance against them. Therefore, a new approach is to identify genetic factors that could be used in breeding host plants for resistance. There are many examples of successful plant breeding for resistance to aphids, but in the case of R. padi and barley, no resistant cultivar is commercially available. The aim of this thesis was to identify and characterise aphid resistance and susceptibility factors in barley. This was done using two major approaches. Firstly, constitutive and aphid-induced gene expression was studied in a large number of barley genotypes with known levels of resistance. Secondly, two cDNAs putatively adding to aphid resistance were transformed to Arabidopsis and barley and the effect of transformation on aphid performance and behaviour was evaluated.

     The study of constitutive transcript abundance in 23 barley genotypes gave suggestive evidence that two genes might be related to aphid resistance; a thionin and a proteinase inhibitor gene, and that a lipoxygenase gene might be related to aphid susceptibility.The study of both constitutive and aphid-induced transcript abundances of three glucanase genes, gave support to the idea that two of them might be susceptibility factors. The cDNA of the proteinase inhibitor mentioned above was expressed in Arabidopsis, under control of either a constitutive or a phloem-specific promoter and the effects were evaluated using the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer. This aphid is a generalist, feeding on many different plant species, both monocot (such as barley) and dicot (such as Arabidopsis).  The results showed lower settling and fecundity on some of the transgenic lines as compared to on controls.  

     In conclusion, the thesis suggests a role in resistance against R. padi in barley for two genes encoding a thionin and a proteinase inhibitor. It has also given support for a role in susceptibility against R. padi of genes encoding a lipoxygenase and two glucanases. The work further shows that a cDNA from barley, selected based on the interaction between a monocot plant and an essentially monocot specialist aphid, affected the resistance of the dicot Arabidopsis against a generalist aphid.

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University , 2016. , 53 p.
Keyword [en]
aphid resistance, aphid susceptibility, Rhopalosiphum padi, Myzus persicae, Hordeum vulgare
National Category
Genetics and Breeding
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126499ISBN: 978-91-7649-339-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-126499DiVA: diva2:902847
Public defence
2016-04-07, Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Svante Arrhenius väg 20, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2017-02-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Transcript abundance of resistance- and susceptibility-related genes in a barley breeding pedigree with partial resistance to the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transcript abundance of resistance- and susceptibility-related genes in a barley breeding pedigree with partial resistance to the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.)
2014 (English)In: Euphytica, ISSN 0014-2336, E-ISSN 1573-5060, Vol. 198, no 2, 211-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aphids such as the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) are serious pests in agriculture worldwide. Partially resistant barley genotypes have been produced in a breeding program for resistance to R. padi. The resistance is manifested as smaller aphids after a certain period of nymphal growth on the test plants. A large number of doubled haploid breeding lines thereby characterized as partially resistant or susceptible to R. padi are available from this breeding program. In the present study a selection of these lines, spanning four generations and 23 genotypes, was used for the evaluation of the constitutive transcript abundance of gene sequences in young barley plants. The genes were selected from an earlier microarray study where they had been identified as being up-regulated by aphids in all four barley genotypes studied or differentially up-regulated or constitutively expressed in the two resistant as compared to the two susceptible barley genotypes. The prediction for constitutive transcript abundance across the selection of genotypes was here confirmed for five out of eight investigated genes. Two of these were, as predicted, expressed at equal levels in all genotypes. Two gene sequences exhibited higher transcript abundance in resistant than in susceptible offspring; one coding for a thionin and another for a proteinase inhibitor. A lipoxygenase gene had higher transcript abundance in the susceptible lines. The study thus gives further support for putative constitutive roles of three genes previously identified as significant in the barley-R. padi interaction.

Keyword
Bird cherry-oat aphid, Gene expression, Hordeum vulgare, Plant resistance, Plant susceptibility
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-105883 (URN)10.1007/s10681-014-1093-5 (DOI)000337041800005 ()
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Note

AuthorCount:3;

Available from: 2014-07-09 Created: 2014-07-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. The constitutive expression and induction of three β-1,3-glucanases by bird cherry-oat aphid in relation to aphid resistance in 15 barley breeding lines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The constitutive expression and induction of three β-1,3-glucanases by bird cherry-oat aphid in relation to aphid resistance in 15 barley breeding lines
2016 (English)In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 10, no 2, 101-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, 15 closely related barley genotypes were analyzed for the abundance of three β-1,3-glucanase transcripts immediately before and during infestation by the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.). The barley lines are doubled haploid lines in backcross (BC) generations BC1 and BC2 from a cross between cultivar Lina and a wild barley accession. Previously, they have been characterized as susceptible (S) or resistant (R) to R. padi based on their ability to support nymphal growth. Here we also tested whether resistance was manifested as reduced aphid settling on the plants. Indeed, aphid numbers were lower on R than on S lines in all cases where there were significant differences between R and S lines. The choice of β-1,3-glucanase sequences is based on earlier results comparing two S and two R genotypes, suggesting that at least two of the three studied sequences are susceptibility factors. The comparisons of transcript abundance in plants with aphids showed for two of the β-1,3-glucanase sequences that there were several cases where an S genotype had significantly higher abundance than an R genotype, and in no case did an R line have significantly higher abundance than an S line. Thus, there was some support for the idea that β-1,3-glucanase sequences are susceptibility factors in the interaction between barley and R. padi.

Keyword
Aphid resistance, Aphid susceptibility, Rhopalosiphum padi, Hordeum vulgare
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126595 (URN)10.1007/s11829-016-9415-2 (DOI)000372596500002 ()
Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-02-08 Last updated: 2017-06-19Bibliographically approved
3. An aphid-induced proteinase inhibitor from barley affects aphid performance in transgenic Arabidopsis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An aphid-induced proteinase inhibitor from barley affects aphid performance in transgenic Arabidopsis
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126660 (URN)
Available from: 2016-02-10 Created: 2016-02-10 Last updated: 2016-02-12Bibliographically approved
4. Aphid performance on Arabidopsis and barley overexpressing an open reading frame, up-regulated in Rhopalosiphum padi resistant barley lines during aphid infestation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aphid performance on Arabidopsis and barley overexpressing an open reading frame, up-regulated in Rhopalosiphum padi resistant barley lines during aphid infestation
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126661 (URN)
Available from: 2016-02-10 Created: 2016-02-10 Last updated: 2016-02-12Bibliographically approved

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