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The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Number of Authors: 4
2016 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 3, 2537-2548 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 mu g/g (median 0.44 mu g/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 mu g/g (median 0.21 mu g/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 23, no 3, 2537-2548 p.
Keyword [en]
Benzothiazoles, Benzotriazoles, Quinolines, Clothing, Textiles, Garments
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126872DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5405-7ISI: 000368376800053PubMedID: 26429136OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-126872DiVA: diva2:905456
Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2016-02-16 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chemicals in textiles: A potential source for human exposure and environmental pollution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemicals in textiles: A potential source for human exposure and environmental pollution
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The wide use of chemicals in textile production is common knowledge, whilst very little has been done to disclose the potentially harmful compounds hiding in our closet. The initial part of this work focused on explorative screening of textile materials in common clothing. Non-targeted analysis of a set of sixty garments revealed the presence of thousands of compounds, among which over a hundred were tentatively identified. Depending on the frequency of occurrence in textile, skin penetrating properties and toxicological data, candidate compounds were selected for confirmation. Analytical methods were developed for their identification and quantification, with focus set on four groups of compounds: quinolines, benzothiazoles, benzotriazoles and aromatic amines. The analytical methods are based on ultrasonic extraction, followed by solid phase clean-up, combined with GC/MS or LC/MS/MS analysis. Concentrations of many target analytes were notably higher in polyester samples compared to garments made from cotton and blended material. The release during washing was investigated for two of the compounds groups, quinolines and benzothiazoles. The decreased concentrations in the garments suggest that laundry is a source of emission of these chemicals into household wastewater, and possibly further into the aquatic environment. Due to the slow decrease of the concentration in the garments when washed, substantial amounts of the compounds will remain in the textiles for a long time, with the possibility of exposure to the skin of potential harmful compounds as a result.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2015. 53 p.
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-120010 (URN)978-91-7649-225-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-16, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-09-24 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved

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