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Taking a Bite out of Diversity - Taxonomy and systematics of biting midges
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae) is one of the most species rich amongst the biting flies (Diptera) and has been recorded from most parts of the world. The species are mostly known for their capability to act as vectors for several important diseases, which have helped in shaping the focus to one of its genera, Culicoides Latreille, 1809.

 

This thesis gives an overview of the knowledge of the Swedish diversity, in the first paper (paper I) with a closer look at the species of Dasyhelea Kieffer, 1911 where all twenty species found in Sweden are presented with their associated localities, and two new species are described.  In the second paper (paper II) the biting midge diversity of Sweden is presented based on specimens collected from several localities. All these individuals were barcoded using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). The analysis included 773 specimens that were assigned into 214 barcoding clusters (BINs) and sorted into 164 groups based on their morphology. The third paper (paper III) broadens the scale were the evolutionary relationships within the family are investigated by applying five protein coding genes (COI, CAD, TPI, AATS and PGD) and specimens from different parts of the World. The analysis recovers Ceratopogonini, Forcipomyia Meigen, 1818 and Bezzia Kieffer, 1899 as paraphyletic and Palpomyia Meigen, 1818 polyphyletic. In the last and fourth paper (paper IV) the family is used as a model organism together with Hymenoptera for an alternative analysis method for reducing the impact of saturation and long-branch attraction using non-synonymous coding (e.g. Degen1) on only parts of a dataset. The effectiveness of the method is compared to the removal of the faster evolving third codon position. The result yields a higher number of supported nodes as well as a higher median of support for the method as well as an ability to reduce long-branch attraction artifacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University , 2016. , 28 p.
Keyword [en]
Ceratopogonidae, Dasyhelea, barcoding, COI, phylogeny Sweden, Forcipomyia, Bezzia, Palpomyia, Degen1
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127144ISBN: 978-91-7649-373-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-127144DiVA: diva2:907094
Public defence
2016-04-08, Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Frescativägen 40, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
The Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (ArtDatabanken, SLU), dha 157/09 1.4
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

 

Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-02-26 Last updated: 2017-02-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. New records of Dasyhelea Kieffer, 1911 from Sweden, with descriptions of two new species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New records of Dasyhelea Kieffer, 1911 from Sweden, with descriptions of two new species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)
2015 (English)In: European Journal of Taxonomy, ISSN 2118-9773, Vol. 131, 1-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on intensive collecting from various sites in Sweden, the genus Dasyhelea Kieffer, 1911 was reviewed and the number of species now known from the country increased from five to twenty. Among the new species recorded there are two species described as new to science, D. dominiakae sp. nov. and D. gothlandica sp. nov., both in the subgenus Dicryptoscena Enderlein, 1936. The following subgenera are now documented from Sweden: Dasyhelea, Dicryptoscena, Pseudoculicoides Malloch, 1915, Prokempia Kieffer, 1913 and Sebessia Remm, 1979, the two latter subgenera being reported for the first time.

Keyword
Biting midges, taxonomy, systematics, new species, Malaise trap
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-120078 (URN)10.5852/ejt.2015.131 (DOI)000358727500001 ()
Available from: 2015-09-07 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2016-03-15Bibliographically approved
2. Barcoding of Swedish biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barcoding of Swedish biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Malaise trap samples from different localities in Sweden recently generated several thousands of specimens of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Of these 773 were sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI), and found to representing 164 morphological species in 19 genera, 5 tribes and 4 subfamilies. In total 214 barcoding clusters (BINs) were recovered in the neighbor-joining analysis, which indicates that the material includes a higher number of species than based on morphology alone, indicating existence of many cryptic or sibling species in Sweden.

Keyword
COI, Dasyhelea, Forcipomyia, Malaise trap
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127990 (URN)
Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-03-15 Last updated: 2016-03-15Bibliographically approved
3. Evolutionary relationships among higher taxa of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) re-evaluated, based on molecular data of five protein-coding genes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolutionary relationships among higher taxa of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) re-evaluated, based on molecular data of five protein-coding genes
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Previous hypotheses on the evolutionary history of the earliest lineages within biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) were traditionally based on morphological characters of adults and juveniles and were not able to produce unambiguous results. Recent hypotheses based on analyses of morphological or DNA sequence data produced better resolution about the relationship among subfamilies and tribes in the family than earlier results, but with ambiguities. By analyzing sequence data combined from fragments of five protein coding genes, carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CAD), triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI), alanyl tRNA synthetase (AATS), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in a phylogenetic analysis we challenge previous ideas about relationships among higher taxa. Approximately 100 species representing 32 genera were included to represent all extant subfamilies and all tribes, except Sphaeromiini s. lat. The Bayesian analysis revealed strong support for a monophyletic Ceratopogonidae as well as all the subfamilies, except Leptoconopinae that is found to be paraphyletic. As found by other authors we recovered Ceratopogonini as paraphyletic. In addition, Palpomyiini was found to be polyphyletic, a configuration not implied earlier. All genera are monophyletic with the exception of a polyphyletic Palpomyia and paraphyletic Bezzia and Forcipomyia.

Keyword
Phylogeny, Bayesian inference, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogoninae
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127991 (URN)
Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-03-15 Last updated: 2016-03-15Bibliographically approved
4. Partial degeneration - a solution to LBA and saturation problems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partial degeneration - a solution to LBA and saturation problems
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: There are many factors to consider when studying evolutionary relationships. The effect of substitution saturation and compositional heterogeneity may result in erroneous relationships and long-branch attraction artifacts (LBA) are all too real for a researcher in this field. A well-used method of avoiding LBA is removal or degeneration of the faster evolving third codon positions in protein coding genes and while successful, it possibly reduces valuable information in the process. We want to test the effectiveness of degenerating synonymous sites (i.e. degen1 coding) used on only a selective part of a dataset and how it compares to the common methods otherwise used. Testing these methods, two protein coding gene datasets covering Hymenoptera and Diptera, differing in size, hierarchal level and evolutionary age, was analyzed using maximum likelihood. 

Results: Both data sets, with high support across the trees, displayed LBA in the early lineages when all codon positions were included. Both methods of dataset alteration yielded similar and more likely trees, but the partial degeneration method showed higher number of supported nodes and as well as a higher median support.

Conclusions: Partial degeneration is able to solve LBA artifacts and is a more efficient method to use when data is poorly sampled or suffers from substitution saturation and/or compositional heterogeneity. 

Keyword
saturation, Long-branch attraction, phylogeny
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127993 (URN)
Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-03-15 Last updated: 2016-03-15Bibliographically approved

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