Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Relationships between estimated flame retardant emissions and levels in indoor air and house dust
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Show others and affiliations
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A significant number of consumer goods and building materials can act as emission sources of flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor environment. We investigate the relationship between the emission source strength and the levels of 19 brominated flame retardants (ΒFRs) and 7 organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in air and dust collected in 38 indoor microenvironments in Norway. We use modelling methods to back-calculate emission rates from indoor air and dust measurements and identify possible indications of an emission-to-dust pathway. Experimentally-based emission estimates provide a satisfactory indication of the relative emission strength of indoor sources. Modelling results indicate an up to two orders of magnitude enhanced emission strength for OPFRs (median emission rates of 0.083 and 0.41 μg.h-1 for air-based and dust-based estimates) compared to BFRs (0.52 and 0.37 ng.h-1 median emission rates). An emission-to-dust signal was identified for 4 of the 7 OPFRs, but only for 1 out of the 19 BFRs. The influence of the sensitivity and uncertainty of KOA on model-estimated emission rates is explored and it is concluded that uncertainty in the model input KOA value could potentially lead to the false identification of an emission-to-dust signal given the high sensitivity of dust-based emission estimates to KOA.

Keyword [en]
indoor emissions, modelling, BFRs, OPFRs, emission mechanism, emission-to-dust
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127259OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-127259DiVA: diva2:907779
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 264600
Available from: 2016-02-29 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2016-03-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Indoor emissions and fate of flame retardants: A modelling approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor emissions and fate of flame retardants: A modelling approach
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A significant number of consumer goods and building materials act as emission sources of flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor environment. As a result, FRs have become ubiquitous indoors raising concerns about human exposure and possible health implications. Once released indoors, FRs can escape to the outdoors where they can persist, be transported over long distances and present a threat to the environment. Despite the increasing number of studies reporting the occurrence of FRs in the indoor environment, the understanding of i) how and to what extent these chemicals are released from indoor sources, and ii) their subsequent fate indoors remains limited. The overarching objective of this thesis was to improve this understanding by assessing the indoor emissions and fate of FRs using a combination of multimedia modelling strategies and experimental/empirical approaches. Paper I identifies a number of knowledge gaps and limitations regarding indoor emissions and fate of FRs and the available modelling approaches. These include a limited understanding of the key emission mechanisms for low volatility FRs, uncertainties regarding indoor air/surface partitioning, poor characterization of dust and film dynamics and a significant lack of knowledge regarding indoor reaction/degradation processes. In Paper II we highlighted the serious scarcity in physicochemical property data for the alternative FRs and demonstrated the applicability of a simple QSPR technique for selecting reliable property estimates for chemical assessments. A modelling fate assessment indicated a strong partitioning to indoor surfaces and dust for most of the alternative FRs. Indications for POP (persistent organic pollutant)-like persistence and LRT (long-range transport) and bioaccumulative potential in the outdoor environment were also identified for many alternative FRs. Using an inverse modelling approach in Paper III we estimated 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher emissions of organophosphate FRs (0.52 and 0.32 ng.h-1) than brominated FRs (0.083 μg.h-1 and 0.41 μg.h-1) in Norwegian households. An emission-to-dust signal was also identified for organophosphate FRs suggesting that direct migration to dust may be a key fate process indoors. No evidence of a direct source-to-dust transfer mechanism was seen in Paper IV where the chemical transfer between a product treated with an organophosphate FR and dust in direct contact was experimentally investigated. It was concluded though that direct contact between an FR source and dust can result in contamination hotspots indoors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2016
Keyword
flame retardants, BFRs, OPFRs, indoor environment, emissions, fate, modelling
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127258 (URN)978-91-7649-341-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-08, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 264600
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Liagkouridis, IoannisCousins, Ian
By organisation
Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry
Environmental Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 151 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link