Relationships between estimated flame retardant emissions and levels in indoor air and house dust
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
A significant number of consumer goods and building materials can act as emission sources of flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor environment. We investigate the relationship between the emission source strength and the levels of 19 brominated flame retardants (ΒFRs) and 7 organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in air and dust collected in 38 indoor microenvironments in Norway. We use modelling methods to back-calculate emission rates from indoor air and dust measurements and identify possible indications of an emission-to-dust pathway. Experimentally-based emission estimates provide a satisfactory indication of the relative emission strength of indoor sources. Modelling results indicate an up to two orders of magnitude enhanced emission strength for OPFRs (median emission rates of 0.083 and 0.41 μg.h-1 for air-based and dust-based estimates) compared to BFRs (0.52 and 0.37 ng.h-1 median emission rates). An emission-to-dust signal was identified for 4 of the 7 OPFRs, but only for 1 out of the 19 BFRs. The influence of the sensitivity and uncertainty of KOA on model-estimated emission rates is explored and it is concluded that uncertainty in the model input KOA value could potentially lead to the false identification of an emission-to-dust signal given the high sensitivity of dust-based emission estimates to KOA.
indoor emissions, modelling, BFRs, OPFRs, emission mechanism, emission-to-dust
Research subject Applied Environmental Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127259OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-127259DiVA: diva2:907779
FunderEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 264600