Arsenic-induced phosphate limitation under experimental Early Proterozoic oceanic conditions
Number of Authors: 5
2016 (English)In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 434, 52-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Comparison of phosphorus concentrations associated with modern hydrothermal Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides and ancient Fe(III) oxide-rich iron formations, is used to estimate bioavailable Precambrian marine phosphorus (P) concentrations. This led to the proposition of a low dissolved P budget of similar to 10-25% of present-day levels, before similar to 1.9 billion years ago. Estimates incorporating ancient marine Si levels >= 0.67 mM instead suggested global dissolved P levels greater than today. Here we unite current experimental models that have considered NaCl solutions containing elevated dissolved Fe(II), Si, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the incorporation of P in Precambrian marine Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides, in addition to arsenic as a hydrothermal proxy. We show that the coprecipitation of dissolved P and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides from arsenic-rich marine waters produces an average P distribution coefficient of similar to 0.072 (+/- 0.01) mu M-1. This is comparable to the similar to 0.07 mu M-1 predicted for Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides in modern arsenic-rich, submarine hydrothermal settings, from which the lower Early Proterozoic dissolved marine P concentrations were predicted. As/P molar ratios below modern seawater ratios removed the negative feedback effect high Si impose on P scavenging by Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. The binding of As(III) to Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides exhibits a lower competitive influence on P fixation. As(V) that likely became prominent in the surficially oxidized Early Proterozoic oceans induced dissolved P limitation because of preferential P sequestration at the expense of dissolved As(V) enrichment. The control of As on P scavenging by the precipitating Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides is strong regardless of common seawater cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+). The data suggest that the application of Si and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides as an ancient seawater P proxy should consider chemical variability between depositional basins, taking into account the rather strong role hydrothermal arsenic has on the distribution of P in Fe(Ill)(oxyhydr)oxides. We propose that the generalized lower dissolved P budgets estimated from Early Proterozoic iron formations are consistent with oceans thought to be at least 3-4 times more hydrothermally active than at present.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 434, 52-63 p.
Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides, banded iron formations, primary productivity, atmospheric oxygenation
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127377DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.11.009ISI: 000368870500006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-127377DiVA: diva2:909463