Evolutionary relationships among higher taxa of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) re-evaluated, based on molecular data of five protein-coding genes
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Previous hypotheses on the evolutionary history of the earliest lineages within biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) were traditionally based on morphological characters of adults and juveniles and were not able to produce unambiguous results. Recent hypotheses based on analyses of morphological or DNA sequence data produced better resolution about the relationship among subfamilies and tribes in the family than earlier results, but with ambiguities. By analyzing sequence data combined from fragments of five protein coding genes, carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CAD), triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI), alanyl tRNA synthetase (AATS), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in a phylogenetic analysis we challenge previous ideas about relationships among higher taxa. Approximately 100 species representing 32 genera were included to represent all extant subfamilies and all tribes, except Sphaeromiini s. lat. The Bayesian analysis revealed strong support for a monophyletic Ceratopogonidae as well as all the subfamilies, except Leptoconopinae that is found to be paraphyletic. As found by other authors we recovered Ceratopogonini as paraphyletic. In addition, Palpomyiini was found to be polyphyletic, a configuration not implied earlier. All genera are monophyletic with the exception of a polyphyletic Palpomyia and paraphyletic Bezzia and Forcipomyia.
Phylogeny, Bayesian inference, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogoninae
Research subject Systematic Zoology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127991OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-127991DiVA: diva2:912054