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Evolutionary relationships among higher taxa of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) re-evaluated, based on molecular data of five protein-coding genes
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Previous hypotheses on the evolutionary history of the earliest lineages within biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) were traditionally based on morphological characters of adults and juveniles and were not able to produce unambiguous results. Recent hypotheses based on analyses of morphological or DNA sequence data produced better resolution about the relationship among subfamilies and tribes in the family than earlier results, but with ambiguities. By analyzing sequence data combined from fragments of five protein coding genes, carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CAD), triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI), alanyl tRNA synthetase (AATS), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in a phylogenetic analysis we challenge previous ideas about relationships among higher taxa. Approximately 100 species representing 32 genera were included to represent all extant subfamilies and all tribes, except Sphaeromiini s. lat. The Bayesian analysis revealed strong support for a monophyletic Ceratopogonidae as well as all the subfamilies, except Leptoconopinae that is found to be paraphyletic. As found by other authors we recovered Ceratopogonini as paraphyletic. In addition, Palpomyiini was found to be polyphyletic, a configuration not implied earlier. All genera are monophyletic with the exception of a polyphyletic Palpomyia and paraphyletic Bezzia and Forcipomyia.

Keyword [en]
Phylogeny, Bayesian inference, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogoninae
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127991OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-127991DiVA: diva2:912054
Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-03-15 Last updated: 2016-03-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Taking a Bite out of Diversity - Taxonomy and systematics of biting midges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taking a Bite out of Diversity - Taxonomy and systematics of biting midges
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae) is one of the most species rich amongst the biting flies (Diptera) and has been recorded from most parts of the world. The species are mostly known for their capability to act as vectors for several important diseases, which have helped in shaping the focus to one of its genera, Culicoides Latreille, 1809.

 

This thesis gives an overview of the knowledge of the Swedish diversity, in the first paper (paper I) with a closer look at the species of Dasyhelea Kieffer, 1911 where all twenty species found in Sweden are presented with their associated localities, and two new species are described.  In the second paper (paper II) the biting midge diversity of Sweden is presented based on specimens collected from several localities. All these individuals were barcoded using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). The analysis included 773 specimens that were assigned into 214 barcoding clusters (BINs) and sorted into 164 groups based on their morphology. The third paper (paper III) broadens the scale were the evolutionary relationships within the family are investigated by applying five protein coding genes (COI, CAD, TPI, AATS and PGD) and specimens from different parts of the World. The analysis recovers Ceratopogonini, Forcipomyia Meigen, 1818 and Bezzia Kieffer, 1899 as paraphyletic and Palpomyia Meigen, 1818 polyphyletic. In the last and fourth paper (paper IV) the family is used as a model organism together with Hymenoptera for an alternative analysis method for reducing the impact of saturation and long-branch attraction using non-synonymous coding (e.g. Degen1) on only parts of a dataset. The effectiveness of the method is compared to the removal of the faster evolving third codon position. The result yields a higher number of supported nodes as well as a higher median of support for the method as well as an ability to reduce long-branch attraction artifacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 2016. 28 p.
Keyword
Ceratopogonidae, Dasyhelea, barcoding, COI, phylogeny Sweden, Forcipomyia, Bezzia, Palpomyia, Degen1
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127144 (URN)978-91-7649-373-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-08, Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Frescativägen 40, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
The Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (ArtDatabanken, SLU), dha 157/09 1.4
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

 

Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-02-26 Last updated: 2016-03-15Bibliographically approved

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