Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Landscape processes, resource use and conservation ideologies in the Rufiji Delta, Tanzania – An examination of population and degradation narratives
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Based on the Neo-Malthusian narrative, the Ujamaa villagization program that took place in Tanzania between 1967 and 1974 is alleged to have caused considerable degradation to the mangroves of the Rufiji Delta as people migrated to the Delta and cleared mangroves for rice cultivation. Using population data from the censuses of 1957 to 2012, we have examined the population trend in the Delta and its possible impact on the mangroves. The census period comprises the pre-Ujamaa and post-Ujamaa periods. Analysis of population trends in the South Delta reveals that the Ujamaa villagization program did not instigate migration to the South Delta and that population is decreasing rather than increasing. In the North Delta there was an increase in population possibly associated with the Ujamaa villagization program, but the population increase in neighboring, non-delta areas was considerably larger. The persistent neo-Malthusian narrative of population growth inevitably leading to mangrove degradation in the Rufiji Delta is thus refuted. Contrary to the assumed causes of environmental changes in the Delta, this study has shown that natural dynamics (changes in salinity, erosion and sedimentation) are responsible for the spatial/temporal changes that determines when and where rice is cultivated and when and where mangroves will thrive.

National Category
Physical Geography
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128040OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-128040DiVA: diva2:912242
Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2016-03-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Causes and Perceptions of Environmental Change in the Mangroves of Rufiji Delta, Tanzania: Implications for Sustainable Livelihood and Conservation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Causes and Perceptions of Environmental Change in the Mangroves of Rufiji Delta, Tanzania: Implications for Sustainable Livelihood and Conservation
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mangroves are ecosystems with enormous ecological importance, supporting both terrestrial and marine food webs. They provide ecosystem services (e.g. food, medicines, fuel, constructing material) to communities near and far. Despite their importance, mangrove areas are facing numerous threats. Based on neo-Malthusian narratives, population growth is an alleged main cause of mangrove degradation, especially in developing countries. This thesis investigates the Rufiji Delta mangroves, from several perspectives including: recent history, present condition, use of land and other resources, as well as actual and potential impacts of government policies and management on mangrove conservation and for the local communities. Of special interest is the examination of multiple, and often diverging, perceptions concerning these variables and processes. Both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used. Interviews were conducted with relevant stakeholders. Analysis of census data (1957–2012), to ascertain population trends in the Delta, spans the pre- and post-Ujamaa villagization programme. Old maps were scanned and geo-referenced in GIS to compare administrative units between successive censuses. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery, spanning from 1994 to 2010, was explored for analysis of mangrove dynamics and stand structure. The analysis of population trends in the Delta revealed decreasing population in the South Delta and a low population increase in the North Delta, in comparison with neighbouring non-delta areas. This is contrary to the assumption by government authorities that the Ujamaa villagization programme instigated migration to the Delta which caused mangrove degradation. Spatio-temporal changes in mangrove area and land use, observed and confirmed by SAR imagery and field control, is part of the highly dynamic eco-hydrology and geomorphology of the delta ecosystem. While some areas have been converted to rice farms, other areas have gained in mangrove coverage. Overexploitation of mangroves occurs, primarily by external actors, and both local communities and representatives of government authorities ascribe this to lack of financial and human resources to enforce current laws and regulations. Ever since the Rufiji mangrove forest was declared as a forest reserve in 1898, it has been a legal quagmire, with legally established village land within a state forest where human habitation is prohibited by law. This thesis explores management approaches that will embrace conservation with sustainable development. That can only be achieved when local communities are legally recognized as inhabitants and important stakeholders in the conservation of the Delta. A conservation approach that removes land tenure uncertainty among the local communities and takes into consideration the dynamic nature of the Delta must be devised for the Rufiji mangroves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, 2016. 39 p.
Series
Dissertations from the Department of Physical Geography, ISSN 1653-7211 ; 54
National Category
Physical Geography
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128074 (URN)978-91-7649-389-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-13, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-03-17 Last updated: 2016-04-22Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Mwansasu, Simon L. A.Westerberg, Lars-OveDahlberg, Annika
By organisation
Department of Physical Geography
Physical Geography

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 91 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link