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Use of pesticides and attitude to pest management strategies among rice and rice-fish farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Nong Lam University, Vietnam.
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Pest Management, ISSN 0967-0874, E-ISSN 1366-5863, Vol. 58, no 2, 153-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study assesses the use of pesticides and attitude to pest management strategies among rice and rice-fish farmersin Can Tho’ and Tien Giang provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, in 2007. A comparison is made to a similarstudy in 1999, in order to identify changes in patterns of pesticide use and possible influences of integrated pestmanagement (IPM) programmes and brown planthopper (a major pest) outbreaks. One hundred and twenty farmersused 66 different pesticides, similar to the 64 pesticides recorded as being used in the 1999 survey. Nine of the 10 mostpopular pesticides in 2007 were the same as those found to be popular in 1999. Insecticides are used by 73–95% ofthe farmers, which is the most commonly employed type of pesticide. The number of applications of both herbicidesand fungicides has more than halved since 1999 for all farmers, while insecticide applications has doubled for IPMfarmers (those with prior training in IPM methodology). Similarly, the average dose of active ingredient (a.i.) ofinsecticides per crop has decreased slightly for non-IPM rice farmers, while it has more than doubled among IPMfarmers, resulting in almost the same amount of a.i. per crop for all groups of farmers (insecticides 0.6, fungicides 0.5,and herbicides 0.3 kg a.i. ha71 crop71). Overall, the results indicate a temporal trend for more selective use ofpesticides and an increased awareness among non-IPM farmers of the negative side effects of pesticide use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 58, no 2, 153-164 p.
Keyword [en]
agro-ecosystem, IPM, Mekong Delta, pesticides, rice-fish farming
National Category
Agricultural Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128412DOI: 10.1080/09670874.2012.672776ISI: 000304833400008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-128412DiVA: diva2:914865
Available from: 2016-03-27 Created: 2016-03-27 Last updated: 2016-04-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Pesticide use in rice farming and its impacts on climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pesticide use in rice farming and its impacts on climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The intensification of agricultural production in the Mekong Delta has faced serious challenges with respect to increased use of agrochemicals and especially pesticides. The indiscriminate use of pesticide could potentially impact on the long-term food production, environmental and human health in the delta. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the negative side effects of the current use of pesticides on climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) in rice fields using brain acetylcholinesterase (hereafter referred to as AChE) activity as a biomarker. The empirical work, on which this thesis is based, includes structured questionnaires, laboratory and field experiments. First, a field survey using questionnaires was carried out to gain a better understanding of the current state of rice farming systems, the use of pesticides and attitude to pest management strategies among rice and rice-fish farmers, as well as to provide basic information for the set-up of the laboratory and field experiments. Secondly, laboratory studies were conducted to clarify if the selected insecticides applied alone and in mixtures caused negative side effects on climbing perch fingerlings. Thirdly, further toxicity studies were carried out, under rice field conditions, to further investigate the toxicity effects of the insecticides, applied alone, in mixtures and under sequential applications, on climbing perch fingerlings.

The results showed that although there were a more selective use of pesticides and an increased awareness among farmers of the negative side effects of pesticides in 2007 as compared to 1999, the current use of pesticide in the Mekong Delta still cause many problems to the environment and human health. Chlorpyrifos ethyl (hereafter referred to as CPF) was found to cause a significant and more prolonged inhibition on the brain AChE activity in climbing perch than fenobucarb (hereafter referred to as F). The inhibition by the mixture of CPF and F were significantly higher than the inhibition by only F, but less prolonged and significant lower than the inhibition by only CPF. The results suggest that the combined effect from a mixture of F and CPF can create both additive effects initially and later antagonistic effects.

CPF and F applied at concentrations used by farmers, either as separate doses, in a mixture or in sequential doses, decreased the brain AChE activity, growth and survival rates in climbing perch. The results demonstrate that brain AChE activity in climbing perch is a relevant biomarker for monitoring of exposure to, and sub-lethal impacts from organophosphates and carbamates under tropical conditions. The result also shows that 2-PAM re-activate the brain AChE activity, and can be used as an alternative method to assess the AChE inhibition level in organisms recently exposed to OP’s, in situation where it may be difficult to find unexposed individuals as controls.

In conclusion, this thesis shows that the current use of pesticides in the Mekong Delta has a negative effect on climbing perch living in rice fields. It indicates that a sustained long-term food production in the Mekong Delta must be based on ecological principles, taking advantages of ecosystem biodiversity and productivity, and not through intensified use of pesticides.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, 2016. 42 p.
Series
Dissertations from the Department of Physical Geography, ISSN 1653-7211 ; 55
Keyword
Mekong Delta, Rice field, Climbing perch, Insecticide, Chlorpyrifos ethyl, Fenobucarb, Mixture, Sequential applications, AChE
National Category
Physical Geography
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128856 (URN)978-91-7649-415-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-27, William Olsson-salen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 5: Submitted.

Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2016-04-26Bibliographically approved

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Berg, HåkanNguyen, Thanh Tam
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