Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Micro-level explanations for emergent patterns of self-governance arrangements in small-scale fisheries—A modeling approach
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1546-0934
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7780-1039
2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 4, 1-23 p., e0175532Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in developing countries are expected to play a significant role in poverty alleviation and enhancing food security in the decades to come. To realize this expectation, a better understanding of their informal self-governance arrangements is critical for developing policies that can improve fishers’ livelihoods and lead to sustainable ecosystem stewardship. The goal of this paper is to develop a more nuanced understanding of micro-level factors—such as fishers’ characteristics and behavior—to explain observed differences in self-governance arrangements in Northwest Mexico. We focus on two ubiquitous forms of self-governance: hierarchical non-cooperative arrangements between fishers and fishbuyers, such as patron-client relationships (PCs), versus more cooperative arrangements amongst fishers, such as fishing cooperatives (co-ops). We developed an agent-based model of an archetypical SSF that captures key hypotheses from in-depth fieldwork in Northwest Mexico of fishers’ day-to-day fishing and trading. Results from our model indicate that high diversity in fishers’ reliability, and low initial trust between co-op members, makes co-ops’ establishment difficult. PCs cope better with this kind of diversity because, in contrast to co-ops, they have more flexibility in choosing whom to work with. However, once co-ops establish, they cope better with seasonal variability in fish abundance and provide long-term security for the fishers. We argue that existing levels of trust and diversity among fishers matter for different self-governance arrangements to establish and persist, and should therefore be taken into account when developing better, targeted policies for improved SSFs governance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 12, no 4, 1-23 p., e0175532
Keyword [en]
Fishing cooperatives, Agent-based modeling, Environmental Variability, Mexico, Patron-client relationships, Social-ecological systems, co-evolution, collective action
National Category
Ecology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Sustainability Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128600DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175532ISI: 000399955400066OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-128600DiVA: diva2:915871
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2017-05-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Learning-by-modeling: Novel Computational Approaches for Exploring the Dynamics of Learning and Self-governance in Social-ecological Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning-by-modeling: Novel Computational Approaches for Exploring the Dynamics of Learning and Self-governance in Social-ecological Systems
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As a consequence of global environmental change, sustainable management and governance of natural resources face critical challenges, such as dealing with non-linear dynamics, increased resource variability, and uncertainty. This thesis seeks to address some of these challenges by using simulation models. The first line of research focuses on the use of learning-by-doing (LBD) for managing a renewable resource, exemplified by a fish stock, and explores LBD in a theoretical model using artificial intelligence (Paper I and II). The second line of research focuses on the emergence of different forms of self-governance and their interrelation with the dynamics of trust among fishers when harvesting a shared resource, using an agent-based model. This model is informed by qualitative data based on small-scale fisheries in Mexico (Paper III and IV). Paper I and II find that the most sustainable harvesting strategy requires that the actor values current and future yields equally, cautiously experiments around what is perceived as the best harvest action, and rapidly updates its ‘mental model’ to any perceived change in catch. More specifically, Paper II reveals that understanding these aspects in relation to the type of change can yield not only increased performance, but also, and more importantly, increased robustness to both fast and slow changes in resource dynamics. However, when resource dynamics include the possibility of a more fundamental shift in system characteristics (a regime shift), LBD is problematic due to the potential for crossing a threshold, resulting in possible persistent reductions in harvests (Paper I). In Paper III, results indicate that cooperative forms of self-governance are more likely to establish and persist in communities where fishers’ have prior cooperative experience, fishers’ trustworthiness is more or less equal, and that this likelihood increases when resource availability fluctuates seasonally. Finally, to achieve a transformation toward more cooperative forms of self-governance, interventions are required that can strengthen both financial capital and trust among the members of the cooperatives (Paper IV). The unique contribution of this thesis lies in the method for ‘quantitatively’ studying LBD, the stylized model of a small-scale fishery, and the analysis of the two models to advance our understanding of processes of learning and self-governance in uncertain and variable social-ecological environments. Together, the results shed light on how social and ecological factors and processes co-evolve to shape social-ecological outcomes, as well as contributing to the development of novel methods within the emerging field of sustainability science.

Abstract [sv]

I vårt antropocena tidevarv är ett långsiktigt förvaltarskap av naturresurser inom social-ekologiska system av yttersta vikt. Detta kräver en djup förståelse av människan, ekologin, interaktionerna sinsemellan och deras utveckling över tid. Syftet med denna avhandling är att nå en djupare och mer nyanserad förståelse kring två av grundpelarna inom forskningen av hållbar förvaltning av naturresurser–kontinuerligt lärande genom learning-by-doing (LBD) för att förstå naturresursens dynamik, samt vad som kan kallas socialt kapital, i detta sammanhang i betydelsen tillit mellan individer, som naturligtvis ligger till grund för framgångsrik gemensam förvaltning. Denna föresats operationaliseras genom att använda två olika simuleringsmodeller. Den ena modellen undersöker hur en hållbar förvaltning av en förnyelsebar resurs, i denna avhandling exemplifierad av en fiskepopulation, kan uppnås genom LBD. Den andra modellen söker blottlägga det komplexa sociala samspel som krävs för att praktisera gemensam förvaltning genom att använda ett fiskesamhälle som fallstudie. Tidigare forskning på båda dessa två områden är relativt omfattade. Emellertid har den forskning som specialiserat sig på LBD i huvudsak inskränkt sig till empiriska fallstudier. Vad som bryter ny mark i denna avhandling är att vi konstruerar en simuleringsmodell av LBD där vi kan studera lärandeprocessen i detalj för att uppnå en mer hållbar förvaltning över tid. Beträffande modellen som behandlar socialt kapital så har tidigare forskning fokuserat på hur en organisation, eller grupp, kan uppnå hållbar förvaltning. Dock saknas ett helhetsgrepp där som tar hänsyn till alla nivåer; från individnivå (mikro), via gruppnivå (meso), till samhällsnivå (makro). Detta är något som denna avhandling försöker avhjälpa genom att undersöka betydelsen av individers egenskaper, uppbyggnaden av socialt kapital, samt hur detta påverkar emergens av ett samhälle dominerat av mer kooperativa förvaltningsformer respektive mer hierarkiska diton.

papper I and II studeras kärnan av LBD som återkoppling mellan en aktör och en resurs, där aktören lär sig genom upprepade interaktioner med en resurs.  Resultaten visar att LBD är av avgörande betydelse för en hållbar förvaltning, speciellt då naturresursens dynamik är stadd i förändring. I den mest hållbara strategin bör aktören värdera nuvarande och framtida fångster lika högt, försiktigt experimentera kring vad aktören upplever som bästa strategi, för att sedan anpassa sin mentala modell till upplevda förändringar i fångst relativt dess insats någorlunda kraftigt. I papper III och IV behandlas uppbyggnaden av förtroende mellan individer och grupp, samt själv-organiserat styre. Genom att använda småskaligt fiske i Mexiko som en illustrativ fallstudie, utvecklades en agent-baserad modell av ett arketypiskt småskaligt fiskesamhälle. Resultaten indikerar att kooperativa förvaltningsformer är mer dominanta i samhällen där de som utför fisket har liknande pålitlighet, starkt gemensamt socialt kapital vid kooperativets start, och då resursen fluktuerar säsongsmässigt (papper III). Papper IV visar att för att uppnå en transformation från hierarkiska förvaltningsformer till kooperativa diton krävs interventioner som inriktar sig på både socialt och finansiellt kapital. Denna avhandling bidrar således till en djupare förståelse kring hur socialt kapital växer fram, samt hur mer strategiska LBD processer bör utformas när abrupta och osäkra förändringar i ekosystemen blir allt vanligare på grund av människans ökade tryck på planeten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 2016. 44 p.
Keyword
Complex adaptive systems, Renewable resources, Adaptive management, Small-scale fisheries, Artificial intelligence, Reinforcement learning, Agent-based modeling, agent-baserade modeller, artificiell intelligens, social-ekologiska system, komplexa adaptiva system, förnyelsebara naturresurser, adaptiv förvaltning
National Category
Other Natural Sciences Ecology Environmental Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Sustainability Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122395 (URN)978-91-7649-357-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-19, Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Roslagsvägen 101, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-04-26 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2017-02-20Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2068 kB)22 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2068 kBChecksum SHA-512
17ec2aa97e2bfd0584de2ff7b27f53fbfb5eeb68aa1f3f64aec84efdd7b2189abd7ae6f89afbf0d794265351fc0ba0f771dad56d1e09275d99b8181e73b227ec
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Lindkvist, EmilieBasurto, XavierSchlüter, Maja
By organisation
Stockholm Resilience Centre
In the same journal
PLoS ONE
EcologySocial Sciences Interdisciplinary

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 22 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 352 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf