Enzyme catalysis by entropy without Circe effect
Number of Authors: 3
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 9, 2406-2411 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Entropic effects have often been invoked to explain the extraordinary catalytic power of enzymes. In particular, the hypothesis that enzymes can use part of the substrate-binding free energy to reduce the entropic penalty associated with the subsequent chemical transformation has been very influential. The enzymatic reaction of cytidine deaminase appears to be a distinct example. Here, substrate binding is associated with a significant entropy loss that closely matches the activation entropy penalty for the uncatalyzed reaction inwater, whereas the activation entropy for the rate-limiting catalytic step in the enzyme is close to zero. Herein, we report extensive computer simulations of the cytidine deaminase reaction and its temperature dependence. The energetics of the catalytic reaction is first evaluated by density functional theory calculations. These results are then used to parametrize an empirical valence bond description of the reaction, which allows efficient sampling by molecular dynamics simulations and computation of Arrhenius plots. The thermodynamic activation parameters calculated by this approach are in excellent agreement with experimental data and indeed show an activation entropy close to zero for the rate-limiting transition state. However, the origin of this effect is a change of reaction mechanism compared the uncatalyzed reaction. The enzyme operates by hydroxide ion attack, which is intrinsically associated with a favorable activation entropy. Hence, this has little to do with utilization of binding free energy to pay the entropic penalty but rather reflects how a preorganized active site can stabilize a reaction path that is not operational in solution.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 113, no 9, 2406-2411 p.
cytidine deaminase, density functional theory, empirical valence bond method, computational Arrhenius plots
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128529DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1521020113ISI: 000371204500044PubMedID: 26755610OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-128529DiVA: diva2:917303