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Observation-Based Assessment of PBDE Loads in Arctic Ocean Waters
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Number of Authors: 4
2016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 5, 2236-2245 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little is known about the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)-also known as flame retardants- in major ocean compartments, with no reports yet for the large deep-water masses of the Arctic Ocean. Here, PBDE concentrations, congener patterns and inventories are presented for the different water masses of the pan-Arctic shelf seas and the interior basin. Seawater samples were collected onboard three cross-basin oceanographic campaigns in 2001, 2005, and 2008 following strict trace-clean protocols. Sigma 14PBDE concentrations in the Polar Mixed Layer (PML; a surface water mass) range from 0.3 to 11.2 pg.L-1, with higher concentrations in the pan-Arctic shelf seas and lower levels in the interior basin. BDE-209 is the dominant congener in most of the pan-Arctic areas except for the ones close to North America, where pentaBDE and tetra-BDE congeners predominate. In deep-water masses, Sigma 14PBDE concentrations are up to 1 order of magnitude higher than in the PML. Whereas BDE-209 decreases with depth, the less-brominated congeners, particularly BDE-47 and BDE-99, increase down through the water column. Likewise, concentrations of BDE-71 -a congener not present in any PBDE commercial mixture increase with depth, which potentially is the result of debromination of BDE-209. The inventories in the three water masses of the Central Arctic Basin (PML, intermediate Atlantic Water Layer, and the Arctic Deep Water Layer) are 158 +/- 77 kg, 6320 +/- 235 kg and 30800 +/- 3100 kg, respectively. The total load of PBDEs in the entire Arctic Ocean shows that only a minor fraction of PBDEs emissions are transported to the Arctic Ocean. These findings represent the first PBDE data in the deep-water compartments of an ocean.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 50, no 5, 2236-2245 p.
National Category
Environmental Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128509DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b05687ISI: 000371371700014PubMedID: 26840066OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-128509DiVA: diva2:917477
Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2016-04-06Bibliographically approved

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Sobek, AnnaGustafsson, Örjan
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ReferencesLink to record
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