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Distributed Technology-Sustained Pervasive Applications
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. (Immersive Networking)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4065-5322
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Technology-sustained pervasive games, contrary to technology-supported pervasive games, can be understood as computer games interfacing with the physical world. Pervasive games are known to make use of ‘non-standard input devices’ and with the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT), pervasive applications can be expected to move beyond games. This dissertation is requirements- and development-focused Design Science research for distributed technology-sustained pervasive applications, incorporating knowledge from the domains of Distributed Computing, Mixed Reality, Context-Aware Computing, Geographical Information Systems and IoT. Computer video games have existed for decades, with a reusable game engine to drive them. If pervasive games can be understood as computer games interfacing with the physical world, can computer game engines be used to stage pervasive games? Considering the use of non-standard input devices in pervasive games and the rise of IoT, how will this affect the architectures supporting the broader set of pervasive applications? The use of a game engine can be found in some existing pervasive game projects, but general research into how the domain of pervasive games overlaps with that of video games is lacking. When an engine is used, a discussion of, what type of engine is most suitable and what properties are being fulfilled by the engine, is often not part of the discourse. This dissertation uses multiple iterations of the method framework for Design Science for the design and development of three software system architectures. In the face of IoT, the problem of extending pervasive games into a fourth software architecture, accommodating a broader set of pervasive applications, is explicated. The requirements, for technology-sustained pervasive games, are verified through the design, development and demonstration of the three software system architectures. The scaling up of the architecture to support distributed pervasive applications, is based on research in the domain of Virtual Worlds and IoT. The results of this dissertation are: the aligning of the Pervasive Games research domain with that of Virtual Worlds, the mapping of virtual time and space to physical counterparts, the scaling up of pervasive games to distributed systems, and the explication of the problem of incorporating IoT into pervasive applications. The implication of this dissertation is to ensure that pervasive games are not left reinventing existing technologies.

Abstract [sv]

Teknikförmedlade verklighetsspel (technology-sustained pervasive games), i motsats till teknikstödda verklighetsspel (technology-supported pervasive games), kan förstås som dataspelets gränssnitt mot den fysiska världen. Verklighetsspel games är kända för att använda sig av ‘icke-standardiserade inmatningsenheter’ och med ökningen av Sakernas Internet (Internet of Things) (IoT), kan verklighetsapplikationer (pervasive applications) förväntas gå längre än verklighetsspel. Denna avhandling omfattar krav- och utvecklingfokuserad (Design Science) forskning för distribuerad teknik omfattande verklighetsspel, som innehåller kunskap från områdena distribuerad databehandling (Distributed Computing), blandad realitet (Mixed Reality), kontextmedveten databehandling, geografiska informationssystem och IoT. Dataspel har funnits i decennier, ofta med en återanvändbar spelmotor för att driva dem. Om verklighetsspel kan förstås som dataspel med gränssnitt mot den fysiska världen, kan då dataspelsmotorer användas för att iscensätta verklighetsspel? Med tanke på användningen av ickestandardiserade inmatningsenheter i verklighetsspel och den tilltagande mängde IoT tillämpningar, hur kommer detta att påverka arkitekturen som stöder verklighetsspel? Användningen av en konventionell spelmotor kan återfinnas i vissa befintliga verklighetsspelsprojekt, men mer generell forskning om hur verklighetsspel överlappar med konventionella dataspel saknas. När en konventionell dataspelsmotor används, är en diskussion om vilken typ av motor som är mest lämplig och vilka egenskaper uppfylls av motorn ofta inte en del av diskursen. Denna avhandling använder flera iterationer av metodramverket för design vetenskap (method framework for Design Science) för konstruktion och utveckling av tre mjukvarusystemarkitekturer. Med tanke på IoT utarbetas problemet att utvidga verklighetsspel till en fjärde mjukvaruarkitektur som kan tillmötesgå en bredare uppsättning av verklighetsapplikationer. Kraven för teknikförmedlade verklighetsspel verifieras genom design, utveckling och demonstration av tre mjukvarusystemarkitekturer. Uppskalning av arkitekturen för att stödja distribuerade verklighetsspel är baserad på forskning inom området för virtuella världar och IoT. Resultaten från avhandlingen är: anpassning av forskningsområdet verklighetsspel med forskningsområdet virtuella världar, metod för matchning av virtuell tid och utrymme till fysiska motsvarigheter, uppskalning av verklighetsspel till distribuerade system, och utarbetning av problemen med att införliva IoT in verklighetsapplikationer. Innebörden av denna avhandling är att se till att implementeringen av verklighetsspel inte leder till att man återuppfinner redan existerande teknik.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2016. , 64 p.
Series
Report Series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 15-016
Keyword [en]
pervasive, games, engine, distributed, virtual, world, internet of things
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-129151ISBN: 978-91-7649-277-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-129151DiVA: diva2:920091
Public defence
2016-06-13, Lilla hörsalen, NOD-huset, Borgarfjordsgatan 12, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Submitted. Paper 6: Submitted. Paper 7: Submitted.

Available from: 2016-05-23 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2017-02-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. GDD as a Communication Medium
Open this publication in new window or tab >>GDD as a Communication Medium
2012 (English)In: Games and Innovation Research Seminar 2011 Working Papers / [ed] Annakaisa Kultima, Mirva Peltoniemi, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2012, 53-59 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Inquiry into the current development methodologies used by the major players in the gaming industry of Sweden has uncovered many abandoning the Game Design Document(GDD) paradigm. We speculate that the move is primarily because of the long unaddressed shortcomings of the GDD in the rapid paced game industry. We set out to design a new GDD medium, especially designed to expedite communication between different teams of a game production. Through published criticisms, post-mortem reports and in combination with our own experiences, we have distilled a set of preliminary general requirements for a new GDD medium. The complete design of this medium will take place in three distinct phases. Aside from the general requirements, this article reports on the first structuring phase, substantiating the general results. The derived structure was tested for its ability to bind pertinent GDD information and support communication between the different production teams.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tampere: University of Tampere, 2012
Series
TRIM Research Reports, ISSN 1799-2141 ; 7
Keyword
GDD
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-114629 (URN)978-951-44-8705-7 (ISBN)
Conference
Games and Innovation Research Seminar May 5-6, 2011, University of Tampere, Finland
Available from: 2015-03-09 Created: 2015-03-09 Last updated: 2016-04-28Bibliographically approved
2. Athletes and street acrobats: designing for play as a community value in parkour
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Athletes and street acrobats: designing for play as a community value in parkour
2012 (English)In: CHI '12 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, 869-878 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Participatory design methods face challenges when designing for a widespread youth community. In such projects, it is not enough to design in collaboration with a few selected individuals; one must also strive to understand the community at a deeper level and incorporate its values and practices into the design solution. We report on our process of designing with, and for, an identified youth group: the Parkour and Freerunning community. We show how the successful design relied not only on employing methods of participatory observation and participatory design, but also on acquiring an understanding of the practice as a ‘fun community’, valuing play over achievement and competition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012
Keyword
Parkour, Freerunning, Youth Culture, Design, Mobile service, Location-based service, fun, sports, community
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-82213 (URN)10.1145/2207676.2208528 (DOI)978-1-4503-1015-4 (ISBN)
Conference
CHI 2012, May 5–10, 2012, Austin, Texas, USA
Available from: 2012-11-12 Created: 2012-11-12 Last updated: 2016-04-28Bibliographically approved
3. A Survey of Characteristic Engine Features for Technology-Sustained Pervasive Games
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Survey of Characteristic Engine Features for Technology-Sustained Pervasive Games
2015 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This book scrutinizes pervasive games from a technological perspective, focusing on the sub-domain of games that satisfy the criteria that they: make use of virtual game elements. In the computer game industry, the use of a game engine to build games is common; the major incentive for employing a reusable game engine being reduced development time and cost. If pervasive games are to reap the same benefits, then engines for pervasive games must be available. But, current game engines do not support pervasive games that, move the game beyond the computer screen, out into the physical world, unbound by scheduled play times and possibly involving unknowing bystanders. Since the computer game industry is already rich with game engines, this book investigates: (i) if a game engine can be repurposed to stage pervasive games; (ii) if features describing a would-be pervasive game engine can be identified; (iii) using those features, if an architecture be found in the same ‘product line’ as an existing engine and if that architecture can be extended to stage pervasive games (iv) and, finally, if there any challenges and open issues that remain. The approach to answering these questions is two fold. First, a survey of pervasive games is conducted, gathering technical details and distilling a component feature set that enables pervasive games (see Chapter 2). Second, a type of game engine is chosen as candidate in the same product line as a would-be pervasive game engine, supporting as much of the feature set as possible. The architecture is extended to support the entire feature set and used to stage a pervasive game called Codename: Heroes (see Chapter 3).

The conclusion of this book is also two fold: the resulting feature set, is verified to coincide with the definition of pervasive games and related work seems to corroborate the set. Second, because the sub-domain of games in question makes use of a persistent virtual world, a virtual world engine is selected as candidate in the same product line as a would-be pervasive game engine. Codename: Heroes was successfully implemented, reaping the benefits of using the selected engine; development time was low, spanning just a few months. Codename: Heroes was staged twice, with no stability issues or down time. And, finally, a set of challenges and open issues is summarized (see Chapter 4).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2015. 66 p.
Series
SpringerBriefs in Computer Science, ISSN 2191-5768
National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-117147 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-17632-1 (DOI)978-3-319-17631-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-17632-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-05-08 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2016-04-28Bibliographically approved
4. Virtual World, Defined from a Technological Perspective, and Applied to Video Games, Mixed Reality and the Metaverse
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual World, Defined from a Technological Perspective, and Applied to Video Games, Mixed Reality and the Metaverse
(English)In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

There is no generally accepted definition for a virtual world, with many complimentary terms and acronyms having emerged implying a virtual world. Advances in systems architecture techniques such as, host migration between instances, mobile ad-hoc networking, and distributed computing, bring in to question whether those architectures can actually support a virtual world. Without a concrete definition, controversy ensues and it is problematic to design an architecture for a virtual world. Several researchers provided a definition but aspects of each definition are still problematic and simply can not be applied to contemporary technologies. The approach of this article is to sample technologies using grounded theory, and obtain a definition for a ‘virtual world’ that is directly applicable to technology. The obtained definition is compared with related work and used to classify advanced technologies, such as: a pseudo-persistent video game, a MANet, Virtual and Mixed Reality, and the Metaverse. The results of this article include: a break down of which properties set apart the various technologies; a definition that is validated by comparing it with other definitions; an ontology showing the relation of the different complimentary terms and acronyms; and, the usage of pseudo-persistent to categories those technologies which only mimic persistence.

Keyword
Virtual World, definition, Video Games, Mixed Reality, Metaverse, MANets, persistence
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-121480 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2017-12-01
5. Virtual World, a Definition Incorporating Distributed Computing and Instances
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual World, a Definition Incorporating Distributed Computing and Instances
2016 (English)In: Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games / [ed] Newton Lee, Springer, 2016, 1-11 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

“Virtual World” Definition: A simulated environment where MANY (one or more) agents can virtually interact with each other, act and react to things, phenomena and the environment; agents can be ZERO (exactly zero) or MANY human(s), each represented by MANY (a virtual self is not required to be unique herein) entities called a “virtual self” (an avatar), or MANY software agents; all action/reaction/interaction must happen in a real-time shared spatiotemporal nonpausable virtual environment; the environment may consist of many data spaces, but the collection of data spaces should constitute a shared data space, ONE (one and only one) persistent shard.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-129148 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-08234-9_44-1 (DOI)978-3-319-08234-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2016-04-28Bibliographically approved
6. Spatiotemporal Modeling of a Pervasive Game
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatiotemporal Modeling of a Pervasive Game
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Implementations of technology-sustained pervasive games, that maintain a virtual spatiotemporal model of the physical world, must contend with the various representations of space and time. An integrated conceptual model is lacking in the domain of Pervasive Games. The contribution of this article is an integrated spatiotemporal conceptual model for pervasive games that: maps the physical to the internal computerized representation (i.e., the virtual), accounts for virtual game entities as objects with relations, and highlights redundancies. The resulting model is evaluated using the pervasive game, called Codename: Heroes, as case study.

National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-129149 (URN)
Conference
Computing Conference 2017, 18-20 July, 2017, London, UK
Note

Accepted paper.

Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2017-01-16
7. Comparing Properties of Massively Multiplayer Online Worlds and the Internet of Things
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing Properties of Massively Multiplayer Online Worlds and the Internet of Things
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

With the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT), this means recognizing the need for architectures to handle billions of devices and their interactions. A virtual world engine at the massively multiplayer scale is a massively multiplayer online world (MMOW); one thing virtual world engines realized when going into the scale of MMOs, is the cost of maintaining a potentially quadratic number of interactions between a massive number of objects, laid out in a spatial dimension. Research into IoT was fueled by research in wireless sensor networks, but rather than start from a device perspective, this article looks at how architectures deal with interacting entities at large scale. The domain of MMOWs is examined for properties that are affected by scale. Thereafter the domain of IoT is evaluated to see if each of those properties are found and how each is handled. By comparing the current state of the art of MMOWs and IoT, with respect to scalability, the problem of scaling IoT is explicated, as well as the problem of incorporating an MMOW with IoT into a pervasive platform. Three case studies of a MMOW interfacing with IoT are presented in closing.

National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-129150 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2016-04-28Bibliographically approved

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